The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook

By Sally M. Miller | Go to book overview

8
The Finnish Press

A. WILLIAM HOGLUND

Since 1876 American Finns have published almost ninety newspapers in a language that was little used for literary purposes until the start of modern migration from Finland to the United States. Between the sixteenth century and 1809, when Imperial Russia acquired Finland from Sweden, Finnish-language publications numbered only 174, mainly of a religious nature. Only one Finnish newspaper appeared in this period; it lasted less than a year. Even after the Russian takeover of Finland, the Swedish language dominated a society in which it was the mother tongue of about 15 percent of the population. However, by the middle of the nineteenth century the Finnish nationalist movement won more recognition for the majority language, both through the transcribing of the oral epic, Kalevala, and through the gradual adoption of Finnish and Swedish as coequal official languages between 1863 and 1883. This bitter fight over language spurred the publication of Finnish newspapers, which outnumbered Swedish ones after 1876. Religious, temperance, and labor movements, too, hastened the growth of newspapers. But this literary activity lagged in the rural areas of Finland that sent immigrants to America. Consequently, Finnish immigrants developed their literary interests more fully in America, where by 1899, according to Akseli Järnefelt (Rauanheimo), they read newspapers more than in their old homeland.

In 1864 the Quincy Mining Company recruited Finnish copper miners from Norway to work in its mines around Hancock and Calumet, Michigan. Upwards of 1,000 Finns arrived via Norway, while almost 3,500 Finns came directly from Finland during the 1860s and 1870s. These pioneers were mainly supporters of Lars Levi Laestadius and his pietistic movement, which was opposed by the hostile Evangelical Lutheran state church of Finland. In 1867 Finnish Laestadians, or Apostolic Lutherans, as they were later known, joined Swedes and Norwegians to establish a congregation in Hancock. Four years later the Finns formed their own congregation. Meanwhile, Finnish Evangelical Lutherans began forming their own churches in the same area. Before these Michigan communities were well established Finns started moving to farms in Minnesota.

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The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Notes xxi
  • 1: The Arabic-Language Press 1
  • Notes 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • 2: The Carpatho-Rusyn Press 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 23
  • Notes 23
  • Notes 26
  • 3: The Chinese-American Press 27
  • Notes 39
  • Notes 42
  • 4: The Croatian Press 45
  • Notes 56
  • Notes 58
  • 5: The Danish Press 59
  • Bibliography 69
  • 6: The Dutch Press 71
  • Notes 82
  • Notes 83
  • 7: The Filipino-American Press 85
  • Introduction 85
  • Conclusion 95
  • Notes 96
  • Notes 99
  • 8: The Finnish Press 101
  • BEBLIOGRAPHY 113
  • 9: The Franco-American Press 115
  • Bibliography 128
  • 10: The German-American Press 131
  • Bibliography 158
  • 11: The Greek Press 161
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliography 176
  • 12: The Irish-American Press 177
  • Bibliography 188
  • 13: The Japanese-American Press 191
  • Bibliography 202
  • 14: The Jewish Press 203
  • Bibliography 227
  • 15: The Latvian and Lithuanian Press 229
  • Bibliography 236
  • Notes 242
  • Bibliography 244
  • 16: The Mexican-American Press 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 17: The Norwegian-American Press 261
  • Bibliography 273
  • 18: The Polish-American Press 275
  • Bibliography 289
  • 19: The Portuguese Press 291
  • Bibliography 302
  • 20: The Puerto Rican Press 303
  • Bibliography 314
  • 21: The Romanian Press 315
  • Bibliography 324
  • 22: The Russian Press 325
  • Bibliography 335
  • 23: The Serbian Press 337
  • Bibliography 351
  • 24: The Slovak-American Press 353
  • Bibliography 368
  • 25: The Slovene-American Press 369
  • Bibliography 377
  • 26: The Swedish Press 379
  • Bibliography 391
  • 27: The Ukrainian Press 393
  • Bibliography 407
  • About the Editor and Contributors 409
  • Index 415
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