while the National Lutherans converted their Auttaja into a short-lived monthly devotional journal in 1965. In 1975 the Industrialisti terminated its activities, leaving five surviving newspapers. Throughout this period circulation declined almost one-half, to about 43,000 at the end of the ten-year period from 1945 to 1955. The total declined to approximately 22,000 in 1965 and to nearly 12,000 by the mid-1970s.
In the early 1980s only five newspapers survived after more than 100 years of publishing by Finns in the United States. The five were the Swedish-language Norden and the Finnish Amerikan Uutiset, New Yorkin Uutiset, Raivaaja, and Työmies-Eteenpäin; total circulation was about 7,500. The Amerikan Uutiset had the most subscribers, replacing the Työmies-Eteenpäin, which had long been in first place. All clung to a decreasing number of loyal readers and supplemented their declining income from subscriptions with special fund drives and subsidies from the Finland Society of Helsinki. All employed modest staffs which had managed to recruit Finnish-born editors. Whatever their orientation, the papers mirrored the activities of a retired immigrant generation, recalling occasionally the heyday of Finnish publishing, which had once produced not only about 90 newspapers but also over 250 periodicals, including monthlies and yearbooks and even weeklies devoted to women, humor, cooperatives, and literature. In 1983 the editors of the four Finnish-language papers met in Minneapolis, lamenting their common fate and dreaming of new ways to prolong their literary tradition. However, no practical resolutions were forthcoming. It may be that the 1980s will mark the passing of the Finnish-American newspaper.
Haltrola David T. "Finnish-Language Newspapers in the United States." In Ralph J. Jalkanen , ed., The Finns in North America: A Social Symposium. Hancock, Mich.: Suomi College, 1969, pp. 73-90.
Kero Reino. "From Soldier of Fortune to Newspaperman: The Story of Alexander Leinonen." Finnish Americana 1 ( 1978): 41-50.
Kolehmainen John I. "Finnish Newspapers and Periodicals in Michigan." Michigan History Quarterly 24 ( 1940): 119-127.
-----. "Finnish Newspapers in Ohio." The Ohio State Archeological and Historical Quarterly 47 ( 1938): 123-128.
-----. The Finns in America: A Bibliographical Guide to Their History. Hancock, Mich.: Suomi College, 1947, chap. 8: "Newspapers and Periodicals."
-----. Sow the Golden Seed. Fitchburg, Mass.: Raivaaja Publishing Co., 1955. Reprint. New York: Raivaaja Publishing Co., 1979.
Kostiainen Auvo. "Features of Finnish-American Publishing." Publications of the Institute of History, General History, University of Turku, Finland, No. 9. Vassa, Finland, 1977, pp. 54-70.
Niemi Taisto J. "The Book Concern: Six Decades of Service to Suomi Synod and It's [sic] People." In Ralph J. Jalkanen, ed., The Faith of the Finns: HistoricalPerspectives on the Finnish Lutheran Church in America