The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook

By Sally M. Miller | Go to book overview

The invasion and partial occupation of Cyprus by Turkey aroused and united the Greek-American community in a way that no previous issue has. This event, along with Turkey's insistence on sharing control of the Aegean Sea and some of the Greek islands between the two nations, led to the establishment of a new national Greek-American organization, the United Hellenic American Congress. In concert with other Hellenic organizations, it created an effective Greek-American lobby which succeeded in persuading Congress to impose an arms embargo on Turkey and to provide financial and military aid to Greece. 27

In this respect, the Greek-American press, unlike in the days of the Royalist- Venizelist filed, has been unanimous in defense of Greece and Cyprus. In essence then, the Greek ethnic press has come full circle and is once again publishing news on overseas concerns, albeit to an American-born readership.

The Greek ethnic press, whether printed in Greek or English, has been a conspicuous and influential part of Greek community life in America. Despite its shortcomings and its partisanship, it reflected the vitality of Greek immigrants as they sought to adjust to their new lives and to preserve their religio-cultural legacy. Despite its high mortality rate and its ongoing factionalism, the Greek ethnic press contributed to the social cohesion of the community, fostered language maintenance, cultivated ethnic pride, and nourished a sense of identity and survival in an alien environment. But at the same time, despite its role as a carrier of ethnicity, the Greek ethnic press has also been a means of assimilation. 28 And herein lies the present dilemma of the Greek language press. While the decline of Greek language usage has been temporarily arrested with the arrival of a large number of immigrants from Greece, the process of assimilation continues to take its toll as these new immigrants become Americanized. This will in turn contribute to the demise of the Greek-language press as in the past, unless there is a new wave of immigrants from Greece. It may be that only the English-language Greek press will survive, given the resurgence of ethnicity and the rise of the concept of cultural pluralism which has replaced the melting-pot doctrine. But this too is open to conjecture. Only time will tell.


NOTES
1.
No less an authority than the Encyclopedia Britannica stated in 1955 that Greek immigrants were "pre-eminently successful" in transmitting their language to their children. See Encyclopedia Britannica, 1955 ed., s.v. "Orthodox Eastern Church," by Matthew Spinka.
2.
Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1972 ( Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1972) p. 92.
3.
Theodore Saloutos, The Greeks in the United States ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964), p. 19.
4.
Practically all writers on Greek immigrants in America state that the Neos Kosmos was published in Boston. But there is some evidence that it may have been published in New York. See Costas Politis, "The Greek Press of America," Eikones, no. 26 ( March 1958): 26-27.
5.
Harry Pratt Fairchild, Greek Immigration to the United States ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911), p. 209.

-174-

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The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Notes xxi
  • 1: The Arabic-Language Press 1
  • Notes 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • 2: The Carpatho-Rusyn Press 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 23
  • Notes 23
  • Notes 26
  • 3: The Chinese-American Press 27
  • Notes 39
  • Notes 42
  • 4: The Croatian Press 45
  • Notes 56
  • Notes 58
  • 5: The Danish Press 59
  • Bibliography 69
  • 6: The Dutch Press 71
  • Notes 82
  • Notes 83
  • 7: The Filipino-American Press 85
  • Introduction 85
  • Conclusion 95
  • Notes 96
  • Notes 99
  • 8: The Finnish Press 101
  • BEBLIOGRAPHY 113
  • 9: The Franco-American Press 115
  • Bibliography 128
  • 10: The German-American Press 131
  • Bibliography 158
  • 11: The Greek Press 161
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliography 176
  • 12: The Irish-American Press 177
  • Bibliography 188
  • 13: The Japanese-American Press 191
  • Bibliography 202
  • 14: The Jewish Press 203
  • Bibliography 227
  • 15: The Latvian and Lithuanian Press 229
  • Bibliography 236
  • Notes 242
  • Bibliography 244
  • 16: The Mexican-American Press 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 17: The Norwegian-American Press 261
  • Bibliography 273
  • 18: The Polish-American Press 275
  • Bibliography 289
  • 19: The Portuguese Press 291
  • Bibliography 302
  • 20: The Puerto Rican Press 303
  • Bibliography 314
  • 21: The Romanian Press 315
  • Bibliography 324
  • 22: The Russian Press 325
  • Bibliography 335
  • 23: The Serbian Press 337
  • Bibliography 351
  • 24: The Slovak-American Press 353
  • Bibliography 368
  • 25: The Slovene-American Press 369
  • Bibliography 377
  • 26: The Swedish Press 379
  • Bibliography 391
  • 27: The Ukrainian Press 393
  • Bibliography 407
  • About the Editor and Contributors 409
  • Index 415
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