The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook

By Sally M. Miller | Go to book overview

15
The Latvian and Lithuanian Press

EDGAR ANDERSON AND M. G. SLAVENAS

The Latvians and Lithuanians hail from the Baltic countries, which form a distinct geographic group on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea and comprise the modern republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. While, in some respects, they also have a common history, they are ethnically and linguistically diverse. The Lithuanian and Latvian languages belong to the ancient Baltic branch of the Indo- European linguistic family, forming a link between the Slavic and Teutonic branches. The Estonian language belongs to an equally ancient Finno-Ugric family of languages. Within this linguistic diversity, the Estonians and Latvians are united by a common Lutheran faith, similar history, and parallel cultural trends. The eastern Latvians, called Latgallians, serve as a link with the Lithuanians, sharing a common Roman Catholic Church, similar cultural developments, and centuries-old historical ties. During the second half of the sixteenth century all Lithuania and Latvia had been united politically, but the union did not last long enough to have a permanent influence.


LATVIAN ETHNIC PRESS

The first Latvians arrived in North America during the seventeenth century along with the Swedes; Latvians also came from their own West Indian settlements in Tobago. Sporadic Latvian emigration continued during the latter part of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century. The most distinguished immigrant from Latvia was Georg Heinrich Loskiel ( 1740-1814), bishop of the Moravian Church, famed Latvian poet, and successful missionary among the Indians. For some time the Latvians were too few in number to consider bringing out publications in their own language. The 1850 census, which grouped Latvians and Lithuanians together because they spoke related languages, counted 3,160 Latvians and Lithuanians in the United States; in 1870 the number had reached 4,644.

The situation changed radically, though, during the latter part of the nineteenth century when thousands of Latvians arrived in the United States to escape per-

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The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Notes xxi
  • 1: The Arabic-Language Press 1
  • Notes 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • 2: The Carpatho-Rusyn Press 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 23
  • Notes 23
  • Notes 26
  • 3: The Chinese-American Press 27
  • Notes 39
  • Notes 42
  • 4: The Croatian Press 45
  • Notes 56
  • Notes 58
  • 5: The Danish Press 59
  • Bibliography 69
  • 6: The Dutch Press 71
  • Notes 82
  • Notes 83
  • 7: The Filipino-American Press 85
  • Introduction 85
  • Conclusion 95
  • Notes 96
  • Notes 99
  • 8: The Finnish Press 101
  • BEBLIOGRAPHY 113
  • 9: The Franco-American Press 115
  • Bibliography 128
  • 10: The German-American Press 131
  • Bibliography 158
  • 11: The Greek Press 161
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliography 176
  • 12: The Irish-American Press 177
  • Bibliography 188
  • 13: The Japanese-American Press 191
  • Bibliography 202
  • 14: The Jewish Press 203
  • Bibliography 227
  • 15: The Latvian and Lithuanian Press 229
  • Bibliography 236
  • Notes 242
  • Bibliography 244
  • 16: The Mexican-American Press 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 17: The Norwegian-American Press 261
  • Bibliography 273
  • 18: The Polish-American Press 275
  • Bibliography 289
  • 19: The Portuguese Press 291
  • Bibliography 302
  • 20: The Puerto Rican Press 303
  • Bibliography 314
  • 21: The Romanian Press 315
  • Bibliography 324
  • 22: The Russian Press 325
  • Bibliography 335
  • 23: The Serbian Press 337
  • Bibliography 351
  • 24: The Slovak-American Press 353
  • Bibliography 368
  • 25: The Slovene-American Press 369
  • Bibliography 377
  • 26: The Swedish Press 379
  • Bibliography 391
  • 27: The Ukrainian Press 393
  • Bibliography 407
  • About the Editor and Contributors 409
  • Index 415
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