tica (in New York and Buenos Aires, in Spanish, 1957- 1967), and Latvijas Brīvībai (For freedom to Latvia; 1952- 1969). The American Latvian Association also issues a number of regular publications for various purposes. Last but not least, one should also mention a plethora of circulars and bulletins of more or less local importance in a number of dense Latvian settlements and societies.
There are no signs to indicate that the Latvian national press will disappear in the United States in the foreseeable future. Latvian Americans have taken the opportunities offered by the United States for shelter and work. Although a small group, they have every reason to be proud of their contributions to their adopted homeland, particularly in various fields of science and its practical applications. At the same time, they have political reasons to maintain their national consciousness and their national press in order to bolster the spirit of their suppressed fellow Latvians in the homeland.
Anderson Edgar. "Latvians." In Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, ed. Stephan Thernstrom. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980, pp. 638-642.
-----. "Latvians Abroad." In Cross-Road Country Latvia, ed. Edgar Anderson. Waverly, Ia.: Latvju Grāmata, 1953, pp. 342-357.
Bibliography of Latvian Publications Published Outside Latvia 1940-1960, comp. Benjaminš Jēgers . 2 vols. Stockholm: Daugava, 1968- 1972.
Bibliography of Latvian Publications Published Outside Latvia 1961-1970, comp. Benjaminš Jegers . Stockholm: Daugava, 1977.
Latviešu periodika. Vol. 1. 1768- 1919. 2d ed. Comp. K. Egle, V. Lūkina, Ā. Brempele, and V. Jaugietis. Riga: Latvijas PSR Zinātņu akadēmija, Fundamentālā bibliotēka, 1977.
Latviesu periodika. Vol. 2. 1920- 1940. Revolucionārā un padomju periodika. Comp. Brempele E. Flīgere, and V. Lūkina. Riga: Latvijas PSR Zinātņu akadēmija, Fundamentālā bibliotēka, 1976.
A noteworthy achievement of the Lithuanian-American community is its extensive press, which was created at the end of the nineteenth century during the first massive wave of Lithuanian immigration and is sustained in the 1980s by post-World War II émigrés. 1 Its development in the first phase of its history is closely linked with the rise of Lithuanian national consciousness, which was imported to this country in the 1880s and 1890s by a handful of young intellectuals; they had been influenced by the ideas of the Lithuanian national revival formulated in the pages of Aušra (Dawn), published from 1883 to 1886 in East Prussia. 2 Their attempts to rouse the community and their disputes in defining community membership resulted in the proliferation of short-lived periodicals