The Portuguese Press
For the purposes of this survey of the historical development and the present status of the Portuguese press in the United States, "Portuguese ethnic press" is here defined as those newspapers and other periodicals produced essentially by and for immigrants from Portugal. This is not quite the same as the Portuguese- language press: on the one hand, there are or have been a few Portuguese- language periodicals published in this country for the primary purpose of commerce or cultural relations with the Portuguese-speaking half of South America, viz., Brazil, rather than to serve immigrants from Portugal. 1 These are excluded. On the other hand, we can marginally include a few periodical publications written in English but aimed largely at Portuguese ethnics1-in this case at the American-born or American-educated children of immigrants from Portugal. 2
The term " Portugal," in this context, covers more territory than the average American reader tends to associate with it: not only the westernmost part of continental Europe bordering on Spain, but also, out in the Atlantic, the Azores, and Madeira Islands, and, in a more limited sense, the Cape Verde Islands off the northwestern part of Africa. Politically, the Azores and Madeira are and always have been an integral part of the Portuguese state, even though in recent years these islands have attained a measure of regional autonomy. The Cape Verde Islands were a Portuguese colony from their intitial settlement until 1975, when they became an independent country. The large majority of Portuguese nationals who have immigrated to the United States over the past one hundred years or so have come from these insular parts of Portugal, chiefly the Azores, rather than from continental Portugal.
Portugal, even if we include the islands just mentioned, is a small country. Its total current population is about 10 million, with less than 1 million living in the three archipelagos. But its rate of emigration has been and continues to be one of the highest in Europe. Historically, Brazil, a Portuguese colony from the early sixteenth century into the nineteenth century, has been the main focus of Portuguese overseas emigration; but the United States (including Hawaii) has