The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook

By Sally M. Miller | Go to book overview

19
The Portuguese Press

LEO PAP

For the purposes of this survey of the historical development and the present status of the Portuguese press in the United States, "Portuguese ethnic press" is here defined as those newspapers and other periodicals produced essentially by and for immigrants from Portugal. This is not quite the same as the Portuguese- language press: on the one hand, there are or have been a few Portuguese- language periodicals published in this country for the primary purpose of commerce or cultural relations with the Portuguese-speaking half of South America, viz., Brazil, rather than to serve immigrants from Portugal. 1 These are excluded. On the other hand, we can marginally include a few periodical publications written in English but aimed largely at Portuguese ethnics1-in this case at the American-born or American-educated children of immigrants from Portugal. 2

The term " Portugal," in this context, covers more territory than the average American reader tends to associate with it: not only the westernmost part of continental Europe bordering on Spain, but also, out in the Atlantic, the Azores, and Madeira Islands, and, in a more limited sense, the Cape Verde Islands off the northwestern part of Africa. Politically, the Azores and Madeira are and always have been an integral part of the Portuguese state, even though in recent years these islands have attained a measure of regional autonomy. The Cape Verde Islands were a Portuguese colony from their intitial settlement until 1975, when they became an independent country. The large majority of Portuguese nationals who have immigrated to the United States over the past one hundred years or so have come from these insular parts of Portugal, chiefly the Azores, rather than from continental Portugal.

Portugal, even if we include the islands just mentioned, is a small country. Its total current population is about 10 million, with less than 1 million living in the three archipelagos. But its rate of emigration has been and continues to be one of the highest in Europe. Historically, Brazil, a Portuguese colony from the early sixteenth century into the nineteenth century, has been the main focus of Portuguese overseas emigration; but the United States (including Hawaii) has

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The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Notes xxi
  • 1: The Arabic-Language Press 1
  • Notes 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • 2: The Carpatho-Rusyn Press 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 23
  • Notes 23
  • Notes 26
  • 3: The Chinese-American Press 27
  • Notes 39
  • Notes 42
  • 4: The Croatian Press 45
  • Notes 56
  • Notes 58
  • 5: The Danish Press 59
  • Bibliography 69
  • 6: The Dutch Press 71
  • Notes 82
  • Notes 83
  • 7: The Filipino-American Press 85
  • Introduction 85
  • Conclusion 95
  • Notes 96
  • Notes 99
  • 8: The Finnish Press 101
  • BEBLIOGRAPHY 113
  • 9: The Franco-American Press 115
  • Bibliography 128
  • 10: The German-American Press 131
  • Bibliography 158
  • 11: The Greek Press 161
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliography 176
  • 12: The Irish-American Press 177
  • Bibliography 188
  • 13: The Japanese-American Press 191
  • Bibliography 202
  • 14: The Jewish Press 203
  • Bibliography 227
  • 15: The Latvian and Lithuanian Press 229
  • Bibliography 236
  • Notes 242
  • Bibliography 244
  • 16: The Mexican-American Press 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 17: The Norwegian-American Press 261
  • Bibliography 273
  • 18: The Polish-American Press 275
  • Bibliography 289
  • 19: The Portuguese Press 291
  • Bibliography 302
  • 20: The Puerto Rican Press 303
  • Bibliography 314
  • 21: The Romanian Press 315
  • Bibliography 324
  • 22: The Russian Press 325
  • Bibliography 335
  • 23: The Serbian Press 337
  • Bibliography 351
  • 24: The Slovak-American Press 353
  • Bibliography 368
  • 25: The Slovene-American Press 369
  • Bibliography 377
  • 26: The Swedish Press 379
  • Bibliography 391
  • 27: The Ukrainian Press 393
  • Bibliography 407
  • About the Editor and Contributors 409
  • Index 415
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