The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook

By Sally M. Miller | Go to book overview

26
The Swedish Press

ULF A. BEIJBOM

During the migration epoch, 1846-1930, 1.2 million Swedes immigrated to the United States. The Swedish immigration was part of the "old" Western European wave--44 percent of the Swedes are recorded as having immigrated in the period 1879-1893, and 65 percent of them arrived before 1900. The nineteenth-century immigration was concentrated in the American Midwest, with Illinois as the first important immigration goal: approximately one out of three Swedish immigrants lived in Illinois from 1850 to 1870, a ratio which decreased to 21 percent in 1881; during the 1880s Minnesota took over as the leading "Swede state" of the United States. 1

The rural majority of the Swedish immigrants settled on the prairies in Henry, Knox, Warren, Mercer, Rock Island, and Bureau counties in northwestern Illinois. In this agricultural region the utopian, hyperevangelical colony known as Bishop Hill was established in 1846 and the first Swedish-oriented Methodist, Lutheran, and Baptist congregations were founded. In 1860 the activities of the religious majority led to the founding of the Lutheran Augustana Synod, the most important Swedish organization in America. Meanwhile, the urbanized minority of the early Swedish immigrants concentrated in Chicago, where 10 percent of the Swedish-born Americans lived in 1890. Another urban stronghold was Rockford, Illinois, which received Swedish immigrants from the early 1850s and where 22 percent of the population in 1900 was born in Sweden. Accordingly, the prerequisites for a Swedish immigrant press presented themselves first in Illinois. 2


EARLY PAPERS IN RURAL AND URBAN ILLINOIS

Due to the Swedish Lutheran state church and, from 1842, an elementary school system, almost all adult Swedish immigrants could read uncomplicated texts. In the mid-nineteenth century daily newspapers became common outside of Stockholm, and most adult immigrants had been confronted with modern papers, even if it was rare for an individual of rural or urban working-class background to have read newspapers regularly. The "father" of the Augustana

-379-

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The Ethnic Press in the United States: A Historical Analysis and Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Introduction xi
  • Notes xxi
  • 1: The Arabic-Language Press 1
  • Notes 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • 2: The Carpatho-Rusyn Press 15
  • Introduction 15
  • Conclusion 23
  • Notes 23
  • Notes 26
  • 3: The Chinese-American Press 27
  • Notes 39
  • Notes 42
  • 4: The Croatian Press 45
  • Notes 56
  • Notes 58
  • 5: The Danish Press 59
  • Bibliography 69
  • 6: The Dutch Press 71
  • Notes 82
  • Notes 83
  • 7: The Filipino-American Press 85
  • Introduction 85
  • Conclusion 95
  • Notes 96
  • Notes 99
  • 8: The Finnish Press 101
  • BEBLIOGRAPHY 113
  • 9: The Franco-American Press 115
  • Bibliography 128
  • 10: The German-American Press 131
  • Bibliography 158
  • 11: The Greek Press 161
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliography 176
  • 12: The Irish-American Press 177
  • Bibliography 188
  • 13: The Japanese-American Press 191
  • Bibliography 202
  • 14: The Jewish Press 203
  • Bibliography 227
  • 15: The Latvian and Lithuanian Press 229
  • Bibliography 236
  • Notes 242
  • Bibliography 244
  • 16: The Mexican-American Press 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 17: The Norwegian-American Press 261
  • Bibliography 273
  • 18: The Polish-American Press 275
  • Bibliography 289
  • 19: The Portuguese Press 291
  • Bibliography 302
  • 20: The Puerto Rican Press 303
  • Bibliography 314
  • 21: The Romanian Press 315
  • Bibliography 324
  • 22: The Russian Press 325
  • Bibliography 335
  • 23: The Serbian Press 337
  • Bibliography 351
  • 24: The Slovak-American Press 353
  • Bibliography 368
  • 25: The Slovene-American Press 369
  • Bibliography 377
  • 26: The Swedish Press 379
  • Bibliography 391
  • 27: The Ukrainian Press 393
  • Bibliography 407
  • About the Editor and Contributors 409
  • Index 415
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