The Ukrainian Press
BOHDAN P. PROCKO
This chapter is intended to provide the general reader with a historical survey of the Ukrainian press in America. 1 It does not claim to be comprehensive, and it is limited to serials which have had direct connection with the size, growth, and development of Ukrainian-American communities in the United States. Publications representing Russophile, Rusynophile, or Magyarophile viewpoints fall outside the scope of the account. Its primary concerns are newspapers and journals intended for general rather than local distribution issued at regular intervals. Calendars and almanacs, though extremely important, are not included, nor are the early educational booklets issued more or less at regular intervals.
Mass Ukrainian immigration to the United States began late in the 1870s when villagers from the mountainous border districts between Transcarpathia and Galicia in Austro-Hungary, where neither literacy nor national consciousness was commonplace, began arriving as laborers for the mining companies in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania. The new immigrants became generally known as Ruthenians, a Latinization of the Slavic Rusyny (Rusini), which is derived from the Kievan Rus'.
Thrust into unfamiliar and hostile surroundings, these immigrants yearned for their own familiar institutions, in particular their own Greek Catholic (Uniate) church, the center of their social life in Europe. The handful of priests, the first intellectuals among these early immigrants, and the churches that they organized became the nuclei from which other institutions began to spread. From these emanated ethnic awareness and, eventually, future Ukrainian-American communities. The systematic attempt to arouse the immigrants' ethnic awareness really began with the appearance of the press. With the growth of national consciousness during the first two decades of the twentieth century the immigrants from the Austrian provinces of Galicia and Bukovina became generally known by their new national name: Ukrainians.