Direct Foreign Investment: Costs and Benefits

By Richard D. Robinson | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
For a general review of relative performance, see H. Gunter, Employment Effects of Multinational Enterprises in Industrialised Countries ( Geneva: International Labor Office, 1981).
2.
For these purposes, the state can be regarded as the combination of the usual offices of government together with the rest of the administration, including the Commisariat du Plan, as well as the public enterprises directly under the control of the administration. For thoughtful reviews of this approach to the power and the practice of the state, see C.-A. Michalet, "France" in R. Vernon, ed., Business and the State ( New York: Macmillan, 1974); J. M. McArthur and B. R. Scott, Industrial Planning in France ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration, 1969); and A. Barrere "La Coherence de l'Economie publique, le plan et le marche," Economic Publique ( CNRS, 1968, pp. 449-482.
3.
This paragraph draws heavily on Michalet.
4.
See, for example, Commission onthe General Economy and Finance, Sixth Plan, Rapport( Paris: La Documentation Francaise, 1971).
5.
Twenty percent was effectively the French definition of the boundary separating portfolio from direct investment.
6.
For a fuller account of contemporary British policies, see J. M. Stopford and L. Turner, Britain and the Multinationals ( New York: John Wiley, 1986.
7.
Robin Leigh-Pemberton, "Changing Boundaries in Financial Services," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin 24, no. 1 ( March 1984).
8.
For a general review, see George H. Kuster, "Germany," in Vernon. See also Andrew Schonfield, Modern Capitalism ( Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1965).
9.
The Federal Chancellor, Bundestag Papers, Period V, No. 4236 ( Bonn: Hegner, 1969), p. 3.
10.
Kuster, p. 82. See also H. O. Lenel, "Haben Wir Noch Eine Soziale Markwirtschaft?" Ordo 22 ( 1971).
11.
The 1983 attempt by GEC of Britain to buy 40 percent of the ailing electrical giant AEG was blocked more by the concentrated action of the bankers and unions than by any governmental intervention.
12.
For a review of the issues, see J. M. Stopford and L. T. Wells, Managing the Multinational Enterprise ( New York: Basic Books, 1972); L. G. Franko, Joint Venture Survival in Multinational Corporations ( New York: Praeger, 1971). For a more recent review of changing practices, see K. R. Harrigan, "Joint Ventures and Global Strategies," Columbia Journal of World Business 19, no. 2 ( Summer 1984).
13.
The story has its complexities. For details, see O. H. Jensen and J. E. Sandvik, "Samarbeidsforetak--Joint Ventures i Norsk Industri" ( Bergen: Foretaksokonomisk Institutt, Norges Handelshoyskoke, 1971).
14.
For fascinating details of some of the managerial adjustments and development efforts needed to create a unification of purpose, see D. McAllister, "A Strategy for Organisational Learning: The IVECO Experience," in B. Garratt and J. M. Stopford , Breaking Down Barriers ( London: Gower, 1980).
15.
See, for example, J. H. Dunning, "Changes in the Level and Structure in International Production: The Last One Hundred Years," In M. H. Casson, ed., The Growth of International Business ( New York: Macmillan, 1983); and P. J. Buckley

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