Space, the Dormant Frontier: Changing the Paradigm for the 21st Century

By Joan Johnson-Freese; Roger Handberg | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Howard E. Shuman, Politics and the Budget ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1992), 22.
2.
Leonard David, "Goldin Chastises U.S. Rocket Developers," Space News ( 12-18 February 1996): 4 ,21.
3.
Goldman, Space Policy. An Introduction ( Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1992), 130, 224.
4.
Joan Johnson-Freese, Changing Patterns of International Cooperation in Space ( Melbourne, FL: Orbit Books, Kreiger Publishing, 1990), Chapter 8.
5.
Roger Handberg, Joan Johnson-Freese and David C. Webb, "Hype or Hypersonic?" Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., September 1991.
6.
The stricter Japanese regulation of space for non-military purposes has caused them significant consternation. Use of satellites for military transmissions, for example, could technically be considered unconstitutional.
7.
See Committee on Space Policy, National Academy of Sciences/National Academy of Engineering, "Towards a New Era in Space: Realigning US Policies to New Realities," Reported in Space Policy ( August 1989).
8.
This is the amount known from "open" budgets. The extent of additional expenditures on space activities in classified programs (such as those in the NRO) is, of course, not known precisely, but it may be considerable.
9.
Ben Iannotta, "NASA Budget Elicits Doubt," Space News ( 25-31 March 1996): 1, 25.
10.
One can argue exact hardware costs from a variety of perspectives: including R&D, not indudmg R&D, depending on launch configuration used, and so on. . . . One article, for example, cites the cost of the Milstar satellites as $1 billion each, and the cost of the Titan IV launcher as $290 million. William Harwood , "Air Force Titan Lifts $1 Billion Satellite," Washington Post ( 8 February 1994): 3. Another pegs the Milstar satellite as a $1.4 billion payload. Ben Iannotta and Neil Munro, "'US Air Force Readies Titan IV for Key Milstar Launch," Space News ( 10-16 January 1994): 5. Other references say the Titan IV cost 'up to $350 million per launch." Ben Iannotta, "US Spy Satellite Spending Static in 1995," Space News ( 14-20 February 1994): 4. When a Titan IV exploded in 1993, some analysts were assessing the value of the payload (not a Milstar satellite) and launch vehicle at $1.5-2 billion. Bruce Smith, "'Explosion Halts Titan IV Launchees" Aviation Week & Space Technology ( 9 August 1993): 22. Most analysts acknowledge that there are various ways to compute cost/price, making none of these inherently wrong. All this is said to explain that the figures used here, for all hardware, are merely for comparative purposes.
11.
Robert Heilbroner and Peter Bernstein, The Debt and the Deficit ( New York: Norton Books, 1989), 62.
12.
Ibid., 62-65. Misunderstanding or not, however, most Americans feel that $3 trillion is too much borrowing.
13.
Shuman, 353.
14.
R. Shep Melnick, "Interpreting Entitlements: The Politics of Statutory Construction," The Brookings Review (Winter 1994): 40-45.
15.
Shuman, 54.
16.
Congressional Budget Office, The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update ( August 1994). 31, 34, 35.

-146-

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Space, the Dormant Frontier: Changing the Paradigm for the 21st Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Acronyms ix
  • I - THE BIG PICTURE 1
  • 1 - Repackaging the Dream 3
  • Notes 29
  • 2 - Policy Overview: If You Don't Care Where You'Re Going, Any Road Will Take You There 33
  • Notes 62
  • II - THE SITUATION 67
  • 3 - Space As a Government Domain 69
  • Notes 91
  • 4 - History As Inertia 95
  • Notes 120
  • 5 - The Economics of Space, Breaking the Dependency Cycle 123
  • Notes 146
  • III - THE OPPORTUNITY 149
  • 6 - Semidesperate Times 151
  • Notes 177
  • 7 - Seeking New Opportunities 181
  • Notes 204
  • IV - The Method 209
  • 8 - Convergence: Merging the Space Technology Bases 211
  • Notes 225
  • 9 - Change the Paradigm: Incorporate Politics and Emphasize Economics 229
  • Notes 246
  • 10 - A Parallel Development Plan 249
  • Notes 264
  • Selected Bibliography 267
  • Index 271
  • About the Authors 278
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