Space, the Dormant Frontier: Changing the Paradigm for the 21st Century

By Joan Johnson-Freese; Roger Handberg | Go to book overview

potential for convergence seemingly high, significant difficulties will remain.

Therefore, perhaps referring back to 1960's political science integration theory, which anticipated problems with differing cultures, might prove productive. Variations of the theories of functionalism and noo-functionalism all recognize that progress (integration) will be made fastest and easiest where all parties recognized that it would directly benefit them. Rather than expecting too much from examples like merged satellite systems, starting on a smaller scale might be appropriate. An earlier example occurred In 1994 when Lockheed Corporation leased the SLC 6 complex at Vandenburg AFB in California. SLC 6 was originally to be the West Coast shuttle launch pad, but it was never used. Instead the pad sat dormant, requiring at least minimal maintenance and security. Through its lease, Lockheed gets use of the launch facilities, and DOD at the very least dumped the monthly electric bills that cost in excess of $50,000. Everybody is happy with the arrangement. These may well prove to be the real convergence success stories in the near future.

Concurrently, ways must be actively sought to make cooperation pay off for the various parties. Only then will cultural and administrative barriers be overcome, indeed torn down by those on the inside. The problems remain difficult, but they are not insurmountable. Creating the commitment for change is the key. Ordering or mandating change rarely accomplishes as much as expected. The incentives (either positive or negative) must be related to organizational needs or desires. Such decisions or incentive structures usually demand a combination of outside pressures and inside leadership. For these reasons, the process will likely be a rocky one, but one with the logic of reality behind it. The old budgets and justifications do not wash, so new ways for conducting affairs must be sought and achieved.


NOTES
1.
Assessing the Potential for Civil-Military Integration. Technologies, Processes, and Practices, OTA-ISS-611 ( Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, September 1994), iii.
2.
From the Office of Technology Assessment, Assessing the Potential for Civil-Military Integration: Technologies, Processes, and Practices, OTA-ISS-611 ( Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, September 1994); Redesigning Defence: Planning the Transition to the Future US Defense Industrial Base, OTA- ISC-500 ( Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, July 1991); Building Future Security: Strategies for Restructuring the Defense Technology and Industrial Base, OTA-ISC-530 ( Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, June 1992); Adjusting to a New Security Environment: The Defense Technology and Industrial Base Challenge, BP-ISC-79 ( Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, February 1991); American Military Power. Future Needs, Future Choices, BP-ISC-80 ( Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, October 1991); and Lessons in Restructuring Defense Industry: The French Experience, BP-

-225-

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Space, the Dormant Frontier: Changing the Paradigm for the 21st Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Acronyms ix
  • I - THE BIG PICTURE 1
  • 1 - Repackaging the Dream 3
  • Notes 29
  • 2 - Policy Overview: If You Don't Care Where You'Re Going, Any Road Will Take You There 33
  • Notes 62
  • II - THE SITUATION 67
  • 3 - Space As a Government Domain 69
  • Notes 91
  • 4 - History As Inertia 95
  • Notes 120
  • 5 - The Economics of Space, Breaking the Dependency Cycle 123
  • Notes 146
  • III - THE OPPORTUNITY 149
  • 6 - Semidesperate Times 151
  • Notes 177
  • 7 - Seeking New Opportunities 181
  • Notes 204
  • IV - The Method 209
  • 8 - Convergence: Merging the Space Technology Bases 211
  • Notes 225
  • 9 - Change the Paradigm: Incorporate Politics and Emphasize Economics 229
  • Notes 246
  • 10 - A Parallel Development Plan 249
  • Notes 264
  • Selected Bibliography 267
  • Index 271
  • About the Authors 278
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