I want finally to amplify some of the attitudes of the Greek intellectuals I have been considering by turning very briefly to the historian Cassius Dio and his view of the place of Greek culture in the Roman Empire.
Coming from Nicaea in Bithynia Cassius Dio was a slightly older contemporary of Philostratus and lived from around 163/4 to after 229.1 Politically he was fully committed to the Roman empire and enjoyed a distinguished senatorial career, being consul II ordinarius with the emperor Severus Alexander in 229. His first consulship was certainly under Septimius Severus.2 Dio's relations with Severus show tensions similar to those felt by Galen. He had brought himself to the attention of the emperor by publishing and presenting to him a short work on 'the dreams and portents which gave Severus hopes of the imperial power'. Severus acknowledged this in complimentary terms ( Roman History lxxii. 23. 1-2). This work has rightly been seen as a precaution taken by a man who wanted to keep secure under the new regime the honours granted him in the brief reign of Pertinax in 193, particularly his appointment as praetor for the year 194.3 Similar is the study of the wars and civil disorders in the years after Commodus' assassination which also won imperial approval when it was published perhaps after the defeat of Severus'____________________