In writing this book I have incurred many debts. Archivists have provided crucial help. Several, after being briefly taken aback by the odd nature of my interests, thought of topics that expanded my notions of civic and patriotic pageants. The list of manuscript sources at the end of the book suggests some of the places that have assisted me. I owe particular gratitude to Dennis Bilger, Phil Lagerquist and Irwin Mueller of the Truman Library, James Leyerzapf at the Eisenhower Library, Fred Klose of NARA at Laguna Niguel, Karl Kabelac of the University of Rochester, James Gregory Bradsher at the National Archives in Washington, Marian Smith at the Immigration and Naturalization Service Research Library, and Grace O'Connor of Mosinee High School. My thanks go also to George Johnson, Elly Vajda Seng and Clinton W. Kanaga, Jr., for access to materials in their possession, and to those kind enough to let me interview them.
I received much assistance at the Richard J. Daley Library of the University of Illinois at Chicago, notably from Kathleen Kilian of Interlibrary Loan. The involvement of Dr. Stephen E. Wiberley, Jr., in this book was nearly conspiratorial. The staffs of the Glen Ellyn Public Library and the College of DuPage also provided much help.
Many fellow-historians have aided me. They gave me documents or information about sources, commentary on conference papers, opportunities to impose my ideas on their students and colleagues, and useful reminiscences. My debts extend to James L. Baughman, Debra Beil, Mary C. Brennan, Don E. Carleton, John Lewis Gaddis, Alonzo L. Hamby, Paul