The Neutrality Policy of the United States

By Julia E. Johnsen | Go to book overview

In 1916 the Austrian ambassador, Dr. Dumba, had been recalled at the request of the American Department of State. He had entrusted a letter addressd to his government to the keeping of a newspaper correspondent. When intercepted, the letter revealed a plan to foment strikes in the American munitions plants. The submarine question was discussed in the cases of the Ancona and the Petrolite. On April 8, 1917, the Austrian government, as Germany's ally, broke off diplomatice relations with the United States, and in due course war was declared against Austria.

With these interferences by both of the belligerent groups, is neutrality possible and feasible? Is it worth the effort? Will it inevitably lead to war, especially in case of a maritime power, and a maritime conflict? It is again a case of circumstances, of interests, of policy, of point of view. Until all effective states agree upon the abandonment of neutrality, those remaining outside the agreement will insist on their right to judge for themselves as to the neutral or belligerent character of their policy, in the case of a conflict between two or more other states. This lies in the field of policy. And as long as the policy of neutrality may be elected, it follows that the status of neutrality will exist, together with its rights and duties. The belligerent states will be sufficiently active in demanding that a country be impartially neutral. The neutral state must itself insist upon an observance of its rights.


COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS AND NEUTRALITY5

Since the World war the "crisis of neutrality" has become a well-established phrase. But this phrase has two different meanings: It means, first, that the law

____________________
5
By Josef L. Kunz, Professor of International Law, University of Toledo. American Society of International Law. Proceedings. 1935. p. 36-42.

-94-

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The Neutrality Policy of the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 1
  • Introduction 3
  • Contents 5
  • Summary of the Arguments 9
  • Bibliography 39
  • Definitions 71
  • General Discussion 77
  • Historical Development of the Law Of Neutrality 77
  • Legal Position of Neutrality 82
  • Neutrality and War Prevention 85
  • Position of American Neutrality During the World War 89
  • Covenant of the League of Nations And Neutrality 94
  • Neutrality Policy of August 1935 104
  • American Policy 105
  • New Proposals 109
  • Price of Neutrality 118
  • Brief Excerpts 126
  • Affirmative Discussion 145
  • Neutral Policy for America 145
  • Mandatory Neutrality 152
  • Contraband and Neutral Trade 156
  • Future of Neutrality 162
  • Safeguards to Neutrality 167
  • Dragging America into War 174
  • American Neutrality 178
  • Propaganda Balance Sheet 180
  • Brief Excerpts 182
  • Negative Discussion 205
  • Cost of Peace 205
  • World Chaos Once More 213
  • Neutrality and International Organization 219
  • Is Neutrality Consistent With International Cooperation? 226
  • Neutrality and Neutral Rights Following the Pact Of Paris 231
  • Neutrality and War Prevention 238
  • Our Foreign Policy with Respect To Neutrality 241
  • Economics of Neutrality 243
  • Brief Excerpts 245
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