Before Congress had initiated its debate on the neutrality issue, the question of American policy toward war was raised on July 3, when the Emperor of Ethiopia formally asked the United States to examine means of securing observance of the Anti-War Pact. Without waiting for arrival of the Emperor's note in Washington, President Roosevelt rejected his appeal, assuming an attitude of aloofness toward the threatened conflict. In a formal reply the State Department declared it was "gratified" that the League of Nations had given attention to the controversy and added that "it would be loath to believe" that either of the two governments "would resort to other than pacific means as a method of dealing with this controversy or would permit any situation to arise which would be inconsistent with the commitments of the Pact." On July 6 it became known that the State Department had advised all American citizens in Ethiopia, numbering 125--most of whom were missionaries--to leave the country.
The rebuff administered to Emperor Haile Selassie by President Roosevelt was in striking contrast to the policy followed by President Hoover in the Sino- Japanese dispute. Between September 1931 and Janu____________________