An Economic Survey of Communist China

By Yuan-Li Wu | Go to book overview

THE 1954 CONSTITUTION

That the above inferences are correct has been borne out by the Constitution, adopted in 1954, which replaces the Common Program as the organic law of the regime. Economically it is essentially a reaffirmation of the Party's policy as reviewed above although now in several respects provisions of the Constitution are clearer and more explicit than the corresponding articles of the Common Program, thus reflecting the progress made by the Communist Party since 1949 in striving towards its original objectives, some of which, such as land reform and industrial recovery, have already been realized.

In the first place, where the Common Program spoke of land reform, the Constitution now enunciates a policy of "voluntary cooperativization" and of the "restriction and gradual elimination" of rich peasants.10 Secondly, while private capitalists were half-assured of their continued usefulness and protection under the new regime in 1949, national policy towards private business is now positively described as one of "utilization, restriction, and reform."11 The socialization of all business enterprises in areas where the cooperative form does not prevail accordingly looms more imminent than before. Finally, while the Constitution pays lip service to the protection of private property in means of production12 during the period of transition, Article 13 of the Constitution expressly reserves to the state the right to requisition, purchase, and nationalize private land and other means of production "according to law."13 Apparently, the end of the transitional period is now somewhat closer at hand.


NOTES
1.
The theme that national defense is dependent upon industrialization while industrialization must give top priority to defense industries runs through all Communist declarations of policy. It has become particularly evident since the beginning of Communist China's First Five-Year Plan in 1953 and the elaboration by party leaders of the "general party line" as of 1954.
2.
For the texts of these regulations see Compendium of Central Government Financial and Economic Policy Directives and Regulations, 3rd issue, p. 108, edited by the Economic and Financial Commission, Peking, March, 1952 (hereafter cited as Compendium); and New China Monthly, Vol. III, No. 5, Peking, March, 1951. All references of Chinese sources in Chinese, unless otherwise noted.
3.
For an explanation of the apparent contradiction in the term "democratic dictatorship" see, for instance, Mao Tse-tung, "The People's Democratic Dictatorship", Peking, 1949.
4.
Cf. Mao Tse-tung, The New Democracy, Chieh-fang she edition, 1940, p. 17.

-10-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
An Economic Survey of Communist China
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page ii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • Chapter One - Introduction 1
  • Notes 10
  • Chapter Two - Background and Heritage 12
  • Notes 60
  • Chapter Three - Economic Stabilization and Fiscal Policy 64
  • Notes 108
  • Chapter Four - Land Redistribution and Its Implications 113
  • Notes 151
  • Chapter Five - Agricultural Production and Self-Sufficiency 154
  • Notes 189
  • Chapter Six - Industrialization, Planning and Socialization 192
  • Notes 232
  • Chapter Seven - An Appraisal of General Industrial Recovery and Development 238
  • Notes 275
  • Chapter Eight - Survey of Selected Industries 280
  • Notes 310
  • Chapter Nine - Forced Labor and Mass Labor Projects 316
  • Notes 338
  • Chapter Ten - Transportation and Domestic Trade 341
  • Notes 390
  • Chapter Eleven - Monetary and Banking Control 395
  • Notes 421
  • Chapter Twelve - Labor Organization and Wages 424
  • Notes 453
  • Chapter Thirteen - Foreign Economic Relations 456
  • Notes 496
  • Chapter Fourteen - Conclusion 501
  • Notes 507
  • Appendix 509
  • Index 552
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 566

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.