EARLE, PLINY (1809-1892). An American psychiatrist. In 1844 he became superintendent of the Bloomingdale Asylum (q.v.) in New York. He instituted manual work as a form of therapy, which may have been inspired by the work of his father, a manufacturer and improver of wool-carding machines. In 1863 he became professor of psychological medicine at Berkshire Medical Institution in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, thus inaugurating the teaching of psychiatry in medical schools in the United States. In 1864 he became superintendent of the State Lunatic Hospital at Northampton, Massachusetts, and remained for twenty-one years. Having visited many European institutions, he was well acquainted with psychiatric practice in Europe and made American psychiatrists aware of the new ideas and methods of treatment developed by European medical men. He recognized the fallacy of the curability statistics that were then fashionable and published in 1877 a critical analysis of hospital statistics under the title of The Curability of Insanity (q.v.). He was a pioneer in occupational therapy (q.v.) and family care and was one of the thirteen founding fathers of the American Psychiatric Association (q.v.).
Bibliography: Deutsch A. 1949. The mentally ill in America.
EARTHQUAKES OF LONDON (8 February and 8 March 1750). These earth tremors were regarded by the people of London, encouraged by the preachers, as warnings from God against their way of life. A Lifeguardsman increased the general panic by running through the streets predicting a third and more disastrous earthquake in a month's time. His prediction so excited him that the day before the expected earthquake he became delirious and was admitted to Bethlem Royal Hospital (q.v.). His wife, when asked whether he had previously shown signs of madness, replied that he had not and that he was in his right mind now. The Whitehall Evening Post, however, reported that the man had long been affected with religious mania (q.v.) and