KAAN, HENRICUS. A Russian physician. In 1844 he wrote in Latin Psychopathia Sexualis in which he described sexual deviation. The book antedated by forty-two years the more famous work of Richard Von KrafftEbing (q.v.).
Bibliography: Ellenberger H. F. 1970. The discovery of the unconscious.
KAFKA, FRANZ (1883-1924). An Austrian novelist, born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, of Jewish parents. His childhood was blighted by a strained family atmosphere which was later reflected in his novels. He was a hypersensitive and introspective man, who was deeply attached to his dominant father and, later, to Dora Dymant, with whom he briefly experienced happiness in a desperate love affair, when he was already dying of tuberculosis (q.v.). Influenced by Soren Kierkegaard (q.v.), Kafka wrote of a world of despair and aimlessness in which futility pervaded everything and hope seldom appeared. Reality and irreality are described by him in a dream-like way, sharpened by humor. His characters, like himself, stray in a bewildering world. His most famous novels, which were published posthumously, are The Trials ( 1925) and The Castle ( 1926). Many of his unfinished works were later published by his friend Max Brod ( 1884-1968).
Bibliography: Kafka F. 1935- 1937. Collected works, ed. M. Brod. Sokel W. 1964. Franz Kafka.
KAHLBAUM, KARL LUDWIG (1828-1899). A German psychiatrist. Inspired by the approach of the time, which gave more importance to clinical observation of the course of the disease rather than the search for its cause, he attempted to devise a nosology of mental disorders based on definite clinical entities. He believed that all symptoms could be divided into groups, each containing a certain type of abnormal behavior, which he called a "symptom complex." In 1874, he introduced and described the term "ca-