China's Energy Strategy: Economic Structure, Technological Choices, and Energy Consumption

By Xiannuan Lin | Go to book overview

American and European steel industries. A good example was the agreement between Capital Iron and Steel and the Belgian giant Cockerill. Cockerill constructed a new wire-rod mill with a capacity of 1.2 million tonnes per year for its Walfield complex just before the world steel industry went into deep recession in the late 1970s and decided to shut it down in the early 1980s, as a part of restructuring program. Capital Iron and Steel purchased the mill, along with 2.5 million tonnes per year of upstream steelmaking capacity, at a price of $28 million, which was about one-seventh of the construction costs Cockerill incurred. Overall, China was relatively successful in relocating foreign equipment and facilities. It took the Anshan complex, for example, less than twenty months to dismantle, transport, assemble, and recommission a 0.5 million tonne per year second-hand mill, which started operation in 1987, from the Fairless Works of U.S. Steel.

Technical renovation projects, combined with improved technologies embodied in new production facilities from basic construction projects, raised the technological level of China's iron and steel industry significantly. Several indicators in table 6.12 illustrate the pace of technological progress during 1981- 1987. In ironmaking, the utilization coefficient of blast furnaces increased by 21.8 percent, from 1.47 to 1.79 tonne/m3.day, and labor productivity rose by 34.3 percent. In steelmaking, the output share of outdated OHFs and side-blown converters declined by 8.7 percent and 5.1 percent, respectively. In steel finishing, the continuous-casting ratio increased from 7.1 percent to 12.9 percent. This technological progress was a major contributor to improved energy efficiency in China's iron and steel industry between 1981 and 1987.


CONCLUSION

China's iron and steel industry increased its energy efficiency significantly in the 1980s. Between 1981 and 1987, the industry reduced energy consumption per tonne of crude steel by an average annual rate of about 3 percent, saving more than 2 million tsce of energy a year. The energy savings came from three main sources: (1) a reduction in the iron-to-steel ratio, (2) improved energy management, and (3) technological progress. Quantifying the exact amount of savings from each source is difficult because they were overlapping activities and occurred simultaneously. For example, one way to reduce the iron-to-steel ratio is to change the production process from OHF to EAF. Introduction of new equipment and processes is often accompanied by changes in operations as well. Some energy-efficient measures, such as better control of the air-fuel ratio in reheating furnaces, may require installation of additional equipment (e.g., a computer).

-158-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
China's Energy Strategy: Economic Structure, Technological Choices, and Energy Consumption
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Preface xv
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 11
  • 2 - Energy in China's Economy, 1981 and 1987 13
  • Notes 36
  • 3 - Accounting for Energy-Use Changes: A Structural Decomposition Analysis 39
  • Notes 94
  • 5 - Energy Effects of Production-Technology Changes 95
  • Notes 126
  • 6 - Energy Conservation in Action: A Case Study of the Iron and Steel Industry 129
  • Conclusion 158
  • Notes 161
  • 7 - Summary and Conclusion 163
  • APPENDICES 173
  • Bibliography 185
  • Index 199
  • About the Author 204
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 208

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.