of no noticeable opposition from federal housing agencies. The period from 1932, when the federal government first became involved in public housing construction and what was then called slum clearance), to the early 1960s, when discrimination and segregation in housing programs receiving direct or indirect federal financial aid were formally prohibited, will be referred to as the early period of subsidized housing.
The time since 1964, the high point of the civil rights movement with its important goal of ending segregation in the housing market, will be referred to as the modern period of subsidized housing. What distinguishes this period from the earlier one (at least formally) is the withdrawal of support for segregation by federal housing agencies. We hypothesize that during the early period, subsidized low-income housing projects were, as a matter of public policy, concentrated in low-income areas and assigned to tenants on the basis of race, and that this process still characterized the housing programs, with no significant improvement, in the modern period.