Segregation in subsidized housing is most visible in the patterns of racial occupancy within and among projects, and historically only this racially based form of segregation has been 43studied. 1 This limited approach changed in 1974 when Congress recognized, in the Housing and Community Development Act, the exclusive placement of low-rent housing projects in low-income areas as an important aspect of segregation. Elizabeth Warren, for example, noted that
One of the major issues of the 1960s' Civil Rights movement was the concentration of low-income public housing in inner-city areas and the segregation of the projects by race. Policies began to change in the 1960s and 1970s, however, as a result of landmark efforts. . . . The thrust was toward dispersing low-income subsidized housing to white city and suburban neighborhoods to bring about racial integration. In addition, dispersal was directed toward middle- and upper-income neighborhoods to reduce the segregation by income as well as by race. It was thought that low-income people generally, whites as well as blacks, would benefit from dispersal [emphasis added]. 2
Nevertheless, few studies have clearly analyzed placement of subsidized housing projects specifically in terms of income factors.