racially segregated in occupancy. Similarly, for a given pattern of racial occupancy, there are potentially several patterns of income dispersal. In principle,
individual projects could be racially integrated in occupancy but concentrated
in one income area.
The index Ds of income dispersal of subsidized low-income housing can be
calculated in a manner analogous to the index D of residential dissimilarity.
Given the racial composition of the demand for a housing subsidy program
and the composition of the general waiting list, the separation of tenants by
race in housing projects can be attributed to the selection and assignment of
applicants by the PHA. If the PHA selects and assigns applicants to units
independently of the race factor, the racial composition of individual housing
projects should reflect the racial composition of both the underlying demand
for assistance and the general waiting list of the PHA. Consequently, if the
racial compositions of tenants of individual housing projects diverge significantly from those of the demand and of the general waiting list, this suggests
racial discrimination by the PHA.
Another, less visible but important, form of segregation is the siting of housing
projects by income levels of potential receiving neighborhoods.
Elizabeth C. Warren, "Measuring the Dispersal of Subsidized Housing in Three
Cities," Journal of Urban Affairs 8 ( 1986).
Note this definition excludes the systemwide disparities in racial access to subsidized low-rent housing except insofar as they are reflected in unit by unit inequality.
It is, of course, possible for a PHA to be racially and economically integrated,
and some racial groups still suffer inequity if access to the program for them is restricted by discrimination.
Karl E. Taeuber, "Negro Residential Segregation: Trends and Measurement," Social Problems 12, 1 ( 1964): 44-45. It should be remembered that the index makes no
distinction between voluntary associations and forced (legal or economic) segregation.
Helen B. Shaffer, "Slum Clearance: 1932-1952," Editorial Research Report 11, 20 ( 1952): 806-807.
Herbert J. Gans, "Human Implications of Current Redevelopment and Relocation Planning," Journal of the American Institute of Planners ( February 1959): 15-25.
Although the term blighted area has not been precisely defined by the 1937
housing act, it usually refers to deserted industrial and commercial areas. See, for
Shaffer, "Slum Clearance: 1932-1952,"807.
From the data collected it was impossible to answer the question whether the
federal policy of site selection was properly implemented. See
Richard Stuart Fleisher, "Subsidized Housing and Residential Segregation in American Cities: An Evaluation
of the State Selection and Occupancy of Federally Subsidized Housing" ( Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1979), 3.
Abt Associates, Inc., Codebook for the Annual Housing Survey Data Base,
prepared by Louise Hadden and Mireille Leger ( Cambridge, Mass.: Abt Associates,
Inc., 1988), 1.