Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States

By Modibo Coulibaly; Rodney D. Green et al. | Go to book overview

racially segregated in occupancy. Similarly, for a given pattern of racial occupancy, there are potentially several patterns of income dispersal. In principle, individual projects could be racially integrated in occupancy but concentrated in one income area.

The index Ds of income dispersal of subsidized low-income housing can be calculated in a manner analogous to the index D of residential dissimilarity.

Given the racial composition of the demand for a housing subsidy program and the composition of the general waiting list, the separation of tenants by race in housing projects can be attributed to the selection and assignment of applicants by the PHA. If the PHA selects and assigns applicants to units independently of the race factor, the racial composition of individual housing projects should reflect the racial composition of both the underlying demand for assistance and the general waiting list of the PHA. Consequently, if the racial compositions of tenants of individual housing projects diverge significantly from those of the demand and of the general waiting list, this suggests racial discrimination by the PHA.


NOTES
1.
Another, less visible but important, form of segregation is the siting of housing projects by income levels of potential receiving neighborhoods.
2.
Elizabeth C. Warren, "Measuring the Dispersal of Subsidized Housing in Three Cities," Journal of Urban Affairs 8 ( 1986).
3.
Note this definition excludes the systemwide disparities in racial access to subsidized low-rent housing except insofar as they are reflected in unit by unit inequality.
4.
It is, of course, possible for a PHA to be racially and economically integrated, and some racial groups still suffer inequity if access to the program for them is restricted by discrimination.
5.
See Karl E. Taeuber, "Negro Residential Segregation: Trends and Measurement," Social Problems 12, 1 ( 1964): 44-45. It should be remembered that the index makes no distinction between voluntary associations and forced (legal or economic) segregation.
6.
Helen B. Shaffer, "Slum Clearance: 1932-1952," Editorial Research Report 11, 20 ( 1952): 806-807.
7.
Herbert J. Gans, "Human Implications of Current Redevelopment and Relocation Planning," Journal of the American Institute of Planners ( February 1959): 15-25.
8.
Although the term blighted area has not been precisely defined by the 1937 housing act, it usually refers to deserted industrial and commercial areas. See, for example, Shaffer, "Slum Clearance: 1932-1952,"807.
9.
From the data collected it was impossible to answer the question whether the federal policy of site selection was properly implemented. See Richard Stuart Fleisher, "Subsidized Housing and Residential Segregation in American Cities: An Evaluation of the State Selection and Occupancy of Federally Subsidized Housing" ( Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1979), 3.
10.
Abt Associates, Inc., Codebook for the Annual Housing Survey Data Base, prepared by Louise Hadden and Mireille Leger ( Cambridge, Mass.: Abt Associates, Inc., 1988), 1.

-59-

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Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 3
  • 2 - Housing, History, and Schools of Thought 5
  • Summary of the Post-Civil Rights Literature 17
  • Notes 18
  • 3 - Development of Low-Income Housing in the United States 23
  • Summary 35
  • Notes 36
  • 4 - Research Procedure 43
  • Summary 58
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - Patterns of Segregation in Low-Income Housing, 1932-1963 63
  • Conclusion About the PWA 69
  • Conclusions About the USHA 80
  • Conclusions About War Housing 86
  • Summary: Patterns of Segregation in the Early Period 92
  • Notes 94
  • 6 - Patterns of Racial Segregation and Economic Isolation, 1964-1992 101
  • Summary 117
  • Notes 119
  • 7 - Trends in Subsidized Housing Segregation 123
  • Summary 129
  • Notes 130
  • 8 - Summary and Conclusion 131
  • Appendix 135
  • Note 137
  • Selected Bibliography 139
  • Index 151
  • ABOUT THE AUTHORS 155
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