Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States

By Modibo Coulibaly; Rodney D. Green et al. | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
In addition to 51 housing projects, the Housing Division also financed seven limited dividend housing projects. Limited dividend housing projects are not included in the analysis.
2.
See, for example, Richard Sterner, The Negro's Share: A Study of Income, Consumption, Housing and Public Assistance, (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1943), 317. Housing projects in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are excluded from the analysis.
3.
The number of units for which racial occupancy data were available is slightly lower than the total number of units. Racially bisected projects were housing projects divided into two separate living quarters, one exclusively for white tenants and the other exclusively for black tenants.
4.
According to the housing manager, "Tenants shall only be selected from applicants found to be eligible in accordance with the standard of eligibility. Only those applicants who are most worthy as shown by our investigation will be chosen. First consideration will be given to those having the highest score as to need for housing, general desirability, and financial surety. In the event of two applicants of equal need, preference will be given to the one who registered first. No other factors may be given consideration and no exception can be made to the above rules." Public Housing Administration, Records of the Housing Division of PWA, 1933-1937, statement by Charles J. McMenimen, Housing Manager, RG 196, Project H-8501, New Towne Court ( September 20, 1937), National Archives.
5.
Public Housing Administration, Records of the Housing Division of PWA, 1933-1937, RG 196, Project H-1001, Cedar Central Apartments, Cleveland, Ohio, National Archives.
6.
Public Housing Administration, Records of the Housing Division of PWA, 1933-1937, RG 196, Project H-9001, Wayne, PA ( 1937), National Archives; see also Elizabeth Longan, "Progress by Local and State Agencies," Housing Yearbook ( 1938): 40-117 passim.
7.
Public Housing Administration, Records of the Housing Division of PWA, 1933- 1937, RG 196, Project H-20001, Omaha, Nebraska, National Archives.
8.
Public Housing Administration, Records of the Housing Division of PWA, 1933-1937, RG 196, Project H-1502, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, National Archives.
9.
Recall that the index is calculated by subtracting the proportion of blacks (whites) among all tenants in each housing project from the PHA-wide proportion of black (white) tenants to obtain the deviation DIFF. Since the index assumes that the racial composition of tenants in the PHA is the standard of unsegregated occupancy, the deviation is equal to zero if blacks (whites) as a group are represented in all housing projects as in the PHA as a whole, and different from zero when blacks (whites) as a group are not represented in housing projects as in the PHA as a whole. By multiplying the deviation by the total number of units in housing project j, we find the number of units in project j that would have to be redistributed to arrive at a racially neutral assignment of tenants in j. Adding the number for tenants to be redistributed for all housing projects give us the number of blacks (whites) that must be reassigned to achieve a racially neutral distribution of tenants within the PHA.
10.
The table indicates a substantial variation across PHAs. For some housing projects like the Outhwaite Homes in Cleveland, Parklawn in Milwaukee, College

-94-

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Segregation in Federally Subsidized Low-Income Housing in the United States
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables vii
  • Preface xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 3
  • 2 - Housing, History, and Schools of Thought 5
  • Summary of the Post-Civil Rights Literature 17
  • Notes 18
  • 3 - Development of Low-Income Housing in the United States 23
  • Summary 35
  • Notes 36
  • 4 - Research Procedure 43
  • Summary 58
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - Patterns of Segregation in Low-Income Housing, 1932-1963 63
  • Conclusion About the PWA 69
  • Conclusions About the USHA 80
  • Conclusions About War Housing 86
  • Summary: Patterns of Segregation in the Early Period 92
  • Notes 94
  • 6 - Patterns of Racial Segregation and Economic Isolation, 1964-1992 101
  • Summary 117
  • Notes 119
  • 7 - Trends in Subsidized Housing Segregation 123
  • Summary 129
  • Notes 130
  • 8 - Summary and Conclusion 131
  • Appendix 135
  • Note 137
  • Selected Bibliography 139
  • Index 151
  • ABOUT THE AUTHORS 155
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