Patterns of Racial Segregation and Economic Isolation, 1964-1992
The presidential Executive Order of 1962, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 in principle banned racial discrimination and segregation in housing programs receiving direct or indirect federal financial assistance. 1 Similarly, the Housing and Community Development Act enacted in 1974 by Congress required federal and local housing authorities to avoid concentrating subsidized housing projects in low-income areas. Thus, racial occupancy patterns and policies of earlier periods were recognized as inequitable and deserving of remedy. Did these patterns in fact change?
Comprehensive and reliable racial occupancy data for subsidized low-rent housing are available only for 1977 and 1992, from surveys of PHAs conducted by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 2 Additional data on the racial composition of low-income housing projects were collected by the American Housing Survey. These surveys report data, collected from forms submitted by local housing authorities to HUD, on the numbers of subsidized housing units occupied by families of the various racial and ethnic categories used (these detailed surveys used more disaggregated racial categories than prior efforts, including "White," "Negro/black," "American Indian," "Spanish Ameri