what it deemed were violations of the Sherman antitrust provisions and to force a restructuring of the Bell system. The DOJ pursued its course relentlessly; it, too, was largely undeterred by congressional action. A rather self-conscious Congress entered the policy fray belatedly and set out to seize the policy initiative by rewriting the 1934 Communications Act and preempting the efforts of the FCC and the DOJ. Although Congress had the advantage of statutory prerogative, in the end it was an institution without a clear, deliberate, and manageable goal. Prevailing policy initiative came from the DOJ with the January 1982 announcement of the proposed settlement of its antitrust case against AT&T.