their experience and developmental trajectories. It fails to present powerful lessons to help students understand processes as well as leaders' mental states or concrete manifestations of problems in the environment, and it isolates the school context too much from the contexts in which the majority of adolescents are most interested.
This chapter was presented at a conference on Reasoning and Instruction in History and Social Sciences, Madrid, Spain, October 1992. I am grateful to Charles Middlestead, Susan Robertson, and Edmund Chia for assistance in data collection and coding; to James Byrnes and Joanne Hirsch for helpful discussions of the ideas underlying the paper; and to Jon Wilkenfeld, and the staff of the Maryland Summer Center for International Studies operating under the sponsorship of the Maryland State Department of Education. It is a wonderful place to observe conceptual change among adolescents.
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