Mattingly G. ( 1959). The Armada. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
McDermott L. C. ( 1984, July). Research on conceptual understanding in mechanics. Physics Today, pp. 24-32.
McDiarmid G. W., & Vinten-Johansen, P. ( 1993). Teaching and learning history -- from the inside out (Special Rep.). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, National Center for Research on Teacher Learning.
McKeown M. G., & Beck I. L. ( 1990). The assessment and characterization of young learners' knowledge of a topic in history. American Educational Research Journal, 27, 688-736.
McKeown M. G., Beck I. L., Sinatra G. M., & Loxterman J. A. ( 1992). The contribution of prior knowledge and coherent text to comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 27( 1), 78-93.
Novick P. ( 1988). That noble dream: The "objectivity question" and the American historical profession. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Pascarella E. T., & Terenzini P. ( 1991). How college affects students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Project 30. ( 1991). Year two report. Institutional accomplishments. Newark, DE: University of Delaware.
Ravitch D., & Finn C. E., Jr. ( 1987). What do our 17-year-olds know? A report on the first national assessment of history and literature. New York: Harper & Row.
Santayana G. ( 1905). The life of reason: Reason in common sense. New York.
Schoenfeld, A. ( 1985). Metacognitive and epistemological issues in mathematical understanding. In E. A. Silver (Ed.), Teaching and learning mathematical problem-solving. Multiple research perspectives (pp. 361-379). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Smith P. ( 1990). Killing the spirit: Higher education in America. New York: Viking Penguin.
Stampp K. ( 1965). The era of Reconstruction, 1865- 1877. New York: Vintage.
Stewart D. ( 1989). What is an English major, and what should it be? College Composition and Communication, 40( 2), 188-202.
Walsh W. H. ( 1984). An introduction to the philosophy of history. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. (Original work published in 1951)
Wineburg S. S. ( 1991). Historical problem solving: A study of the cognitive processes used in the evaluation of documentary and pictorial evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83( 1), 73-87.
Woodward C. V. ( 1986). Thinking back. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
[Note: These descriptions are adapted from those in Foner ( 1988, pp. xix-xxvi).]
According to one version, the South, at the end of the War accepted defeat, wanted to find a solution to the problems created by emancipation, and, above all, desired to be reincorporated into the Union as quickly as possible. Andrew Johnson adopted Lincoln's policy of national reconciliation but was opposed by fanatic Radical Republicans in Congress. The