It is impossible to begin to acknowledge my debts for this endeavor without telling the story of my life, because I have drawn of so many parts of life to try to achieve a broad synthesis.
To my artist parents, Elsie Palmer Payne and Edgar A. Payne, I owe much of what I know and more of what I sense and feel about art. I also have to thank them for experiences in various cultural settings that go back before my memory.
A lot is due to the scientists I have known, especially the one I live with, and the many wide-ranging discussions that have gone on under our roof.
A few days in a class of Ralph L. Beals and I knew that anthropology was for me. Since then, I have had many fine anthropologists among my teachers, at U.C.L.A., Chicago, and Minnesota, some of whom I did not fully appreciate at the time, but all of whom affected my thinking, and therefore this book.
What has come to me through the printed page has sometimes been very exciting. Some influences are very evident: the names of A.F.C. Wallace, Warren d'Azevedo, Gregory Bateson and Roy Sieber among others are found scattered through these pages. Some names do not appear at all, yet the paragraphs on field theory in J. F. Brown Psychology and the Social Order and much of Lazlo Introduction to Systems Philosophy have had profound effect on the basic ideas.
For stimulating ideas and friendly arguments at various times I am grateful to Merle Sykora, Dorothy Billings, Doris Francis-Erhard, Herbert Goodrich and Dale Schwerdtfeger. Each of them also gave encouragment at crucial points.
This work owes a lot to E. Adamson Hoebel, Robert F. Spencer and Elden Johnson, who encouraged me to make the anthropology of art my specialty. Dr. Hoebel went through an early draft of this work and made many helpful suggestions.
The art historian, Rena Coen, whose scholarship I greatly admire, read a late draft and offered tactful suggestions concerning the terminology of art history.
Many students suffered through the early drafts of this work, and the ways they used and responded to it have been a most