very different. This may be due to the fact that the relationship of the New Irelanders to the sea is no longer very important, so the formal qualities bear more relation to some other factor, such as the social situation.
To perceive the relation of a people's symbolic forms to the environment in which they live, we need to understand the problems and dangers of that environment. The question "From whence comes death?" can illuminate the way the religious ideas of a people are structured. One need not deny spiritual awareness, or take a materialistic position, to recognize that the Unknown, the Invisible, is defined in terms of metaphors and images that reflect responses to fears and hopes in the physical world.
The visible form tends to reflect, in some way, the environment in which it is created. The most obvious factors that affect the style, (in the broad sense of the word), are the visible forms and inhabitants of the artist's world which are the models for his images, and the materials he has to work with. With the technological means which his environment and culture provides, he shapes the material to express his world, which is also shaped by his culture.
General: Anton et al. 1979; Christensen 1955; N.Y. Graphic Society 1974; Wingert 1962.
Americas: Dockstader 1973; Keleman 1969.
North America and Mesoamerica: Feder n.d.; Feest, 1980; Spencer, Jennings et al 1977; Whiteford 1970.
South America: Dockstader 1967; Emmerich 1965; Lothrop 1961; Stewart and Faron 1959.
Oceania: Alkire 1977 Buehler, Barrow and Mountford 1962; Gittinger 1979; Holt 1967; Linton and Wingert 1946; Poignant 1967; Schmitz n.d.
Africa: Bascom 1973; Maquet 1972a; Sieber 1972, 1980; Willett 1971.
Periodicals: African Arts, American Indian Arts.