Wealth, Authority, and Prestige in the Ica Valley, Peru

By Eugene A. Hammel | Go to book overview

pushed as far as Ica in the following year. The population became subject to the Spanish Crown, through the intermediacy of the officers of Pizarro who were the original encomenderos of the area. Although the Crown made legal efforts to protect the aboriginal inhabitants, historical accounts indicate that they were ruthlessly exploited.6 Their numbers declined to between three and four thousand in a century but were augmented by wholesale importation of Negro slaves. The total population of the valley increased slightly from about 12,000 shortly after the conquest to about 15,000 at the end of the eighteenth century. With Indian serfs, Negro slaves, and later Asiatic bond servants as a base, the Europeans established an economic, social, and political overlordship that has lasted to the present day. The revolution against Spain in 1820-24 led to some reshuffling of political and economic position among them but did not affect their supremacy over the native population and the imported Africans and Asiatics. The war with Chile and the Chilean occupation of Ica in the 1880's had equally little effect on their position.

The population of the valley began to recover from its colonial experiences toward the end of the nineteenth century, when numbers increased to almost 24,000. By the middle of the twentieth century, modern transportation and communication, heavy industry and commercial agriculture had brought Ica face to face with the rest of the world as she had never been before. The technological changes that have occurred in the last generation are in many ways more extensive than any that have come to Ica, and the rate of change continues to accelerate. At the same time, the breakdown of the old colonial social scheme, which began in 1820 and is now reaching its climax, has drastically changed the non-material aspects of life in Ica.7 A marked feature of these changes has been demographic. The population of the valley now stands at almost 69,000, and most of that growth has been concentrated in the city of Ica and in the larger rural towns. The rural population is almost the same size as it was a century ago--about 12,000.

Since our interest is the history of this valley, we must investigate these changes in greater detail and seek to understand them. In this display of difference and change, what regularity exists? The answer lies in an examination of the facts of history, and the ensuing chapters attempt to follow the threads of cultural change from our earliest information to the present day.

____________________
6
See Rowe, 1957.
7
For further details see Hammel Mss.; Wellin Ms.; Donaire Vizarreta, 1941; Caso, 1950; Mirό Quesada Sosa, 1947; Rossel Castro, 1954, and other items cited in the text.

-18-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Wealth, Authority, and Prestige in the Ica Valley, Peru
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Preface 7
  • Introduction 9
  • General Description 13
  • Agriculture and Husbandry 19
  • Industry 32
  • Transportation and Trade 41
  • Social Class: the Formal Aspect 47
  • Social Class: Correlates of Formal Position 56
  • Conclusions 88
  • Bibliography 99
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 112

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.