gies, and the forms of consciousness corresponding to them, here no longer retain a look of independence. They have no history, they have no development, but men in developing their material production and their material intercourse, alter along with this reality of theirs their thought and the products of their thought. It is not consciousness that determines life, but life that determines consciousness. In the first view, one proceeds from the consciousness as the living individual; in the second, which conforms to real life, one proceeds from the really living individuals themselves and regards consciousness only as their consciousness.
This view is not without premises. It proceeds from the real premises, not abandoning them for a second. Its premises are men, not in some fantastic seclusion and state of fixation, but in their actual empirically visible process of development under definite conditions. As soon as this active life- process is presented, history ceases to be a collection of dead facts, as it is even with the still abstract empiricists, or an imaginary activity of imaginary creatures, as with the idealists.
For where speculation ceases, at real life, there begins the real, positive science, a presentation of the practical activity, of the practical process of development of men. Phrases about consciousness cease, and real knowledge must take their place. With the presentation of the reality independent philosophy loses its medium of existence. Its place can be taken, at the most, by a summing up of the most general results to be abstracted from a consideration of the historical development of men. . . .
IN the social production of their subsistence men enter into determined and necessary relations with each other which are independent of their wills--production-relations which correspond to a definite stage of development of their material productive forces. The sum of these production-relations forms the economic structure of society, the real basis upon which a juridical and political superstructure arises, and to which definite social forms of consciousness correspond. The