CHAPTER III

EXHAUSTIVE EXPENDITURE AND TRANSFER EXPENDITURE

§ 1. AMONG the various ways in which the resources raised by government authorities from their subjects are employed a broad threefold distinction may be drawn. First, the government uses its money to secure the production of certain goods and services, whether it sells them to the public for fees (e.g. postal services and gas), or hands them over to the public free (e.g. education), or keeps them in its own hands (e.g. army, navy and civil service). Secondly, it uses its money to make transfers, not as a means of inducing a return in service, to foreigners to whom it is under contractual obligations. Lastly, it uses it to make transfers to citizens of its own to whom it is under contractual or other obligations, e.g. to holders of war loan, old age pensioners, insurance contributors, and applicants for Poor Law relief. These three processes, though they can be covered by one general name, are different in substance.

§ 2. Government expenditures to call out goods or services, whether for the government's own use or for payment to foreign creditors, stand on the same footing. They involve, in the one case directly, in the other indirectly, the actual using-up of a part of the community's resources, so that the community either has to do without these resources itself or has to work harder than it otherwise need have done in order to fill the gap that has for the time been made. These kinds of government expenditure may be called real or exhaustive expenditure. It need hardly be said that the term exhaustive in no way implies wasteful, or suggests that the community would be better off if the expenditure

-19-

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