Pano Nicholas C., "Albania," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992).
Committee for the Salvation of Albania. This committee, established on August 2, 1943, united the communist National Front and the coalition included in the National Liberation Movement. Its purpose was to direct and coordinate the war efforts against the Axis armies and to provide local administration for the liberated areas. The agreement between the communists and the noncommunist forces united in the committee stipulated that the fate of Kosovo-Metohija, an Albanian-populated territory, formerly belonging to Yugoslavia but given to Albania by the Germans in 1941, was to be decided by a plebiscite after the war. The Yugoslav communist agents attached to the Albanian Partisan army forced the communists to repudiate this agreement. As a consequence, the Committee broke up. This led to the civil war (see Civil War in Albania 1943-1944).
Prifti Peter R., "The Labor Party of Albania," in Stephen Fischer-Galati, ed. The Communist Parties of Eastern Europe ( New York, 1979). pp. 548.
Communist Party of Albania (see Albanian Party of Labor). Established in 1941, this party was a nationalistic and, at the same time, a radical Marxist-Leninist organization. It emphasized the struggle for national identity for Albanians in the past, and it glorified the fighters for the cause. It was especially fond of George Kastriota or Skanderbeu (Skanderbeg), a fifteeth-century general who successfully fought against Ottoman imperialism in the Balkans. The party also extolled, among others, Kristofor Idhi and Naim Frasheri, two nationalistic writers, and Abdul Frasheri, another advocate of Albanian independence. It observed the important national holidays, paid tribute to national monuments and historical places and buildings, and emphasized the national heritage of the Albanian people.
The party's leaders, especially Enver Hoxha (see Hoxha, Enver), considered Marxism-Leninism as a universally valid source of social change for all times and all societies, and denied that the ideology was changeable. The party, therefore, rejected any form of coexistence with the non-communist world.
The party was anxious to overcome the general backwardness of Albania which its leaders recognized. They tried to combine modernization with egalitarianism, not realizing that modernity was characterized by the stratification of society. The party was also centralist, strictly enforcing the party's monopoly in politics, the economy, culture, and social policies. It has remained the last bastion of Stalinism in Europe (the other is Castro's Cuba) long after communists system disappeared in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Characteristically, the Albanian Communist party was also utopian and nepotistic.
The party's organization was based on the pattern set by the Soviet Communist