exhibitions by "socialist realist" works. Albanian filmmakers worked in the new National Film Studio. Their productions usually discussed the building of socialism and the struggle of heroic party members against the hidden enemy. Television was introduced in Albania in 1971. Most television sets produced in Albania were restricted to the use of one channel. In each village, town, and city, the state established and subsidized a "house of culture," the local propaganda arm of the Communist party. The buildings had small reading rooms whose shelves were stacked with cheap reprints of Stalin's, Lenin's, and Hoxha's works. They also contained socialist realist novels. Some houses had a movie projector, and a stage for amateur theater and propaganda meetings.
The Committee for Cultural Relations with the Outside World controlled all contacts with foreigners and foreign countries. All meetings with foreign scholars, sportsmen, and the small tourist exchange were under its auspices. The purpose of the committee was to present an image of "progressive socialist Albania" and to denigrate the "decadent" cultures of noncommunist countries.
In 1972, the party began a campaign against "harmful foreign ideas." Ramiz Alia (see Alia, Ramiz), later the successor to Enver Hoxha (see Hoxha, Enver), complained at a meeting of the League of Albanian Writers and Artists that people were reading books by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, and that Freudian psychology was being discussed by some intellectuals. He also stated that Albanians were being corrupted by television and the cinema.
The campaign against Western influences gathered force the following year when meetings were held in factories, collective farms, and other institutions condemning "foreign capitalist and bourgeois influences." This was emphasized at the fifth conference of the party in April 1973, when it was charged that the Albanian media as well as theaters and ballets made concessions to bourgeois ideologies. They were all instructed to serve only the party's aim in building socialism. Italian television, which could be received in Albania, was accused of spreading "Vatican propaganda" and a decadent American way of life. Party ideologues asserted that the "people" (they meant, of course, the party leaders) had the right to demand Marxist-Leninist commitment from its writers. They also stated that the party's control of cultural life was fully justified and that nothing would budge them from this position. Although previous efforts to impose strict uniformity on culture failed (see the Cultural Revolution of 1966-1967), the Albanian communists did not cease their efforts until the collapse of their system.
Marmullaku Ramadan, Albania and the Albanians ( London, 1975); Prifti Peter R., Socialist Albania Since 1944: Domestic and Foreign Developments ( Cambridge, MA, 1978).
Cultural Revolution of 1966-1967. Deeply concerned about the alienation of the people from the communist regime, and attributing this fact to the tremendous growth of the party--and state--bureaucracy that apparently isolated the leaders from the