slower pace. By 1960, 86 percent of all arable land of the country belonged to collective farms. The results were achieved by the well-known Stalinist methods of terror and intimidation. The immediate result was the decline of production in agriculture. But the leaders did not let up the pressure. By 1967, they reported that 100 percent of the land of Albania was in the hands of collective farmers. So were all farm implements and draft, dairy, and meat animals. The families of collectivized farmers were each allocated one-quarter of an acre of land as a household plot. However, the produce from these plots could not be sold, since there was no open market for food products in the country. Not surprisingly, Albanian food production reached only 50 percent of the planned output.
Believing that larger collective farms would be more efficient, the government began combining smaller collective farms into larger units in the 1970s. At the same time, the remaining animals of the collective farmers were confiscated and placed into commonly held herds. These policies contributed to growing discontent among the peasants. Nevertheless, in 1976, the propaganda apparatus of the party proclaimed that Albania had achieved self-sufficiency in the production of bread grains and said that collective farmers would be able to fulfill all food needs of the Albanian people by the early 1980s. This proved to be empty propaganda.
In the meanwhile, the government made tremendous efforts at mechanizing agricultural production, providing artificial fertilizers, and raising a new generation of agricultural technicians. Yet, all these efforts proved futile; they did not result in the inarease of agricultural production. During much of the 1980s, Albania was forced to import food, and this drained the country's hard currency reserves. Other ill-considered interventions in agriculture continued to plague Albanian food producers.
Although new lands were brought into cultivation during the 1960s and 1970s, further land resources were not available. In the 1980s, the population increased yearly by nearly 2 percent, and the leaders were forced to modify their policies somewhat. Even so, food production increases remained below that of the increase of the population.
Kaser Michael, "Albania Under and After Hoxha," East European Economies: Slow Growth in the 1980s ( Washington, DC., 1986), vol. 3, pp. 1-21; Kaser Michael and Schnitzer Adi, "Albania's Uniquely Socialist Economy," East European Economies: Post-Helsinki ( Washington, DC., 1977), pp. 567-646; Schnitzer Adi, Stalinist Economic Strategy in Practice: The Case of Albania ( New York, 1982).
Educational Policies. The communist states everywhere placed great emphasis upon expending educational opportunities for the population under their control. This was true also for Albania. Education was a means of indoctrinating young people in the ideology of Marxism-Leninism. But it was also necessary if Albania was to fulfill its ambitious program of industrialization.