nia's population; the intelligentsia; and the peasantry were completely alienated from his system. Nor was Hoxha able to instill ideological discipline in the industrial workers whose apathy contributed to the failure of the consecutive five-year plans. The frequent and repeated violations of the so-called socialist legality, the enforced ideological conformity, and the brutality of Hoxha's secret police, failed to advance the goal of gaining internal legitimacy for the regime that it would have needed to survive.
Artisien Patrick F. R., "Albania After Hoxha," Sais Review 6.1 (Winter-Spring 1986), pp. 159- 160; Halliday Jon, The Artful Albanian: The Memoires of Enver Hoxha ( London, 1996).
Knives (The Knives, by author Neshat Tozaj). In August 1989, during the uncertainty and turmoil that followed the collapse of the Soviet colonial empire in Eastern Europe, a novel was published in Tirana by the writer Neshat Tozaj entitled Thikat (Knives). Tozaj, an employee of the Ministry of the Interior, was a veteran journalist. His novel opened a window upon the life of secret policemen during the Hoxha regime. The book showed the incredible callousness and brutality of secret police operatives, and their total disregard of the laws and the civil rights of ordinary citizens. Tozaj showed that the secret police obeyed only direct orders issued by Enver Hoxha (see Hoxha, Enver). It became a state within the state, a runaway system that served the individual whims of those who were in the top echelons of the communist apparat.
The publication of the novel created a great stir in Albania. It was reviewed in the October 15, 1989, issue of the weekly newspaper of the Writers' Union in a very favorable way, which enhanced its popularity. It also provided a wider platform for obtaining knowledge of the secret world of the political police. The book contributed to demands for reigning in the secret police and for the establishment of the rule of law instead of the whims of the leaders of the Communist party.
Neshat Tozaj, Thikat (The Knives) (Tirana, 1989).
Kosovo. The land of the province of Kosovo is inhabited by about 2 million Albanians and 200,000 ethnic Serbs. The historical antagonism that exists between the two nations is the most evident in this land. Religious divisions add fuel to the fire; most Albanians are Muslims and most Serbs are Orthodox Christians. None of these factors provides a better understanding between the two groups.
Kosovo has great historical significance for both nations. It was here that the Serbian culture originated. It was also in the "Kosovo polje," or field of blackbirds, where the Ottoman army of Sultan Murad I inflicted the greatest defeat on the opposing Serbian army in 1389, ending the existence of a quasi-independent Serbian state. On the other hand, Albanians have probably lived longer in Kosovo than any other ethnic group. Prizren, a town in the province, was the meeting place for Albanian