ever, failed when French doctors were able to remove the poisoned pellet before it dissolved in Kostov's body. After the collapse of communism, high-ranking officers of the Bulgarian secret service removed the incriminating files and delivered them to the KGB in Moscow. Undoubtedly, however, more of the evidence will come to light in future years.
The Bulgarians were also involved in drug smuggling from the East or, at the least, provided a way station for the smugglers in their country. Once again, however, evidence has been destroyed.
Andrew Christopher and Gordievsky, Oleg, KGB: The Inside Story of its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev ( New York, 1990); Broadhead Frank, et al., "Darkness in Rome: The Bulgarian Connection Revisited," Covert Action Information Bulletin 23 ( 1988) pp. 3-38; Engelbrekt Kjell, "Bulgaria's Communist Legacy: Settling Old Scores," Radio Free Europe Research Reports, 1.28 ( July 10, 1992), pp. 6-10; Pundeff Marin, "Bulgaria," in Joseph Held, ed., The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992).
Blagoev, Dimitar (1856-1924). Blagoev, the first radical socialist-turned-communist leader in Bulgaria, was born in a small village into a peasant family. He became involved at an early age in the nationalist movement directed against the Ottoman occupiers of his country. In 1878, he went to study in Odessa, then a city in the Russian empire, then transferred to the University of St. Petersburg. The university was a hotbed of radical thinking and Blagoev was soon converted to Marxism. In 1883, he was a member of the first Marxist study circle at the university, and two years later he was expelled from Russia for antistate agitation. Returning to Bulgaria, Blagoev was among those who organized the Social Democratic party in 1890, and he became its ideological guru. When the Bulgarian Social Democrats split into a moderate ("broad") faction and a radical ("narrow") faction, Blagoev led the latter. In 1917, he and his followers joined Lenin's Third International, the COMINTERN, and Blagoev renamed his "narrow" Social Democratic faction "communist."
His party supported an uprising against the monarchy in 1918. The uprising failed, and those who participated in the action were killed, except Blagoev. He instinctively stayed out of physical trouble, directing his followers from the background. However, he also learned from his previous mistakes. He began to oppose the reckless adventurism of the COMINTERN and its agents, Georgy Dimitrov (see Dimitrov, Georgy) and Vassily Kolarov (see Kolarov, Vassily), who organized the communist rising of 1923 in Bulgaria. Blagoev was, by then, ill which prevented his active participation in the affair (see Communist Party of Bulgaria). In 1924, Blagoev died. The failure of the 1923 uprising contributed to the destruction of the organization of the Communist party for which Blagoev had labored all his life.
Dellin L. A.D., "The Communist Party of Bulgaria," in Stephen Fischer-Galati, ed. The Communist Parties of Eastern Europe