mier, Filip Dimitrov, the chairman of the Union, is a lawyer and was originally a founding member of the Bulgarian Greens.
The new government immediately introduced legislation for land reform. Its intention was to return the land, confiscated by the communist government, to its previous owners. However, a limit of forty hectares was set in order to prevent the establishment of large estates. A progressive income tax was also enacted, and a new commercial code was established. The government also began to eliminate state subsidies for food and transportation. This resulted in inflationary price increases. At the same time, consumer goods, especially food, became more widely available, and the shelves of stores were once again full. In the first quarter of 1991, inflation reached 300 percent; however, thereafter it was only 5 percent monthly.
The new government was successful in obtaining a moratorium on its debt to the Deutsche Bank, and this enabled it to introduce limited convertibility of the leva. On March 15, 1991, the International Monetary Fund announced the granting of a $300 million loan to Bulgaria. The Paris Club of European states rescheduled $2 billion worth of Bulgarian debt over the next ten years. In April, a trade agreement with the United States provided most favored nation status, and the World Bank provided a loan of $250 million. Bulgaria is the only country in the Balkans that has managed the transformation from the monolithic communist system to a pluralistic, democratic regime without bloodshed. This augurs well for Bulgaria's future.
Perry Duncan M., "Bulgaria: A New Constitution and Free Elections," Radio Free Europe Research Reports, 1. 178-82 ( January 3, 1992), pp. 178-182; Pundeff Marin, "Bulgaria," in Joseph Held, ed., The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); Todorova Maria N., "Improbable Maverick or Typical Conformist? Seven Thoughts on the New Bulgaria," in Ivo Banac, ed., Eastern Europe in Revolution ( Ithaca, NY, 1992).
Communist Party of Bulgaria. The Bulgarian Communist party emerged from a split within the Social Democratic party in 1903. During the interwar years, it developed a strong organizational structure in spite of the fact that most of the time it had to operate underground (see Blagoev, Dimitar). The Bulgarian Communist party (BCP) left the Second International and joined Lenin's COMINTERN in 1919. By that time, it could count on the prestige of Georgy Dimitrov (see Dimitrov, Georgy) and Vassily Kolarov (see Kolarov, Vassily), two members of the highest levels of the COMINTERN, who took refuge in the Soviet Union and acquired Soviet citizenship. In Bulgaria proper, the BCP attracted mostly students, intellectuals and a few industrial workers. It was not yet a mass party, but it was vigorous and quite dogmatic. Its membership may have been around 30,000 before 1944.
In 1923, a COMINTERN-inspired, badly organized attempt at revolution had disastrous effects on the BCP. In his pursuit of world revolution, V.I. Lenin misjudged the Bulgarian situation and dispatched Dimitrov and Kolarov to lead the uprising.