The document guaranteed many civil rights, including equality before the law and the equality of women. Racial, national, and religious equality was also included in the document. Freedom of speech, and freedom of assembly were also proclaimed. The Dimitrov Constitution provided for a highly centralized state in which the leaders of the communist party had unlimited control in spite of all the high-sounding principles proclaimed in it.
Brown J. F., Bulgaria Under Communist Rule ( New York, 1970).
Dobrudja. The territory of Dobrudja, situated between Bulgaria and Romania, has been the subject of nationalist disputes between the two nations for at least a century. Each claims that the majority of the population of the province belongs to its ethnic group. In the first Balkan War of 1912, Serbia and Greece gained control of Dobrudja together with Macedonia. This created conditions for the Second Balkan War of 1913, in which Bulgaria suffered a disastrous defeat. Dobrudja was then incorporated into Romania, which belatedly joined the war against its southern neighbor. After World War I, Bulgaria was again among the losers. But this time Dobrudja was not taken away. Parts of its remained under Bulgarian sovereignty.
Evans Stanley, G., A Short History Bulgaria ( London, 1960).
Education. There was only one university in Bulgaria, but other higher educational institutions were available for students seeking knowledge in practical fields. There were also a number of private schools, among them the American College at Simeonovo, organized by American missionaries, providing education in Western languages. The system was well organized, and it fulfilled its task outstandingly. By the outbreak of World War II, illiteracy had been reduced from the 90 percent level of 1878 to less than 25 percent among the adult population. The number was still relatively high because numerous Gypsy groups living in Bulgaria did not send their children to the schools.
The Bulgarian communists changed the educational system of the country by making it conform to the Soviet model. By 1948, all school textbooks were replaced, a large number of teachers and university instructors were dismissed, and loyal communists were installed in their places regardless of their qualifications. There was only one requirement, namely, loyalty to the Communist party.
The resolution of the party's Central Committee issued in August 1949 stipulated that education at all levels was to be conducted in the spirit of socialism and the unbreakable brotherhood between Bulgaria and the Soviet Union. In line with these policies, education in general and the acquisition of knowledge of Marxism-Leninism in particular were considered not so much a privilege but a duty of all citizens.
After the accession of Nikita Khrushchev to power in the Soviet Union, education