Dainov Evgenii. "Bulgaria: Politics after the October 1991 Elections," Radio Free Europe Research Reports, 1.2 ( January 10, 1992), pp. 12-16; Perry Duncan M. "A New Constitution and Free Elections," Radio Free Europe Research Reports, 1.1 ( January, 3, 1992), pp. 78-82; Todorova Maria N., "Improbable Maverick or Typical Conformist?" in Ivo Banac, ed., Eastern Europe in Revolution ( Ithaca, NY, 1992).
Kolarov, Vassili (1887-1950). Born in the village of Shoumen (renamed Kolarovgrad by the communist authorities), he ran away from home at the early age of eight because he wanted to join the army, but was returned home by the officers. In the early 1900s, he went to Varna as a laborer where he came under the influence of the father of Bulgarian communism, Alexander Blagoev. Between 1904 and 1905, he was an editor of the Student Voice, a radical leftist newspaper that appeared irregularly. In 1906, he graduated from a teacher's college and soon thereafter was instrumental in the establishment of the first Bulgarian teachers' union. In 1907, Kolarov went to study in France at Aix-en-Provance, but he did not complete his studies for a law degree. Returning to the place of his birth, he worked as a lawyer and attended officers' school. In 1904, Kolarov began his career as a full-time politician and became one of the members of the "narrow" socialists, later communists, in the city of Plovdiv. He was elected parliamentary deputy on the Social Democratic ticket.
In World War I, Kolarov served as an officer in the Bulgarian army. After the war, Kolarov was elected secretary of the Bulgarian Communist party. In 1921, he became a COMINTERN agent and, two years later, was one of the organizers of the ill-fated communist uprising in Bulgaria. When the uprising ended, Kolarov fled to Vienna with Georgy Dimitrov (see Dimitrov, Georgy), and then returned to Moscow. As a member of the Bulgarian Communist party's Politburo-in-exile, Kolarov served the COMINTERN as a liaison with the Bulgarian underground Communist party, or what was left of it after the abortive uprising. He also continued working on assignments given him by Stalin.
During the Spanish civil war, Kolarov was a Soviet commissar, working with the KGB-NKVD, the Soviet secret police against Trotskyists and Anarchists. After the victory of General Francisco Franco's forces, Kolarov was evacuated by his Soviet friends and returned to Moscow where he worked in his posts during World War II.
In September 1944, after the communist coup d'etat in Bulgaria, he returned to Sofia and immediately became a member of the leadership of the Fatherland Front (see Fatherland Front). As such, Kolarov was engaged in the Stalinization of his country. Kolarov then worked in various posts and, after the death of Dimitrov, he took over as first secretary of the Bulgarian Communist party. He lasted in that post for only six months; in early 1950, he died of an unknown ailment.
Evans Stanley G., A Short History of Bulgaria ( London, 1960); McIntyre Robert J., Bulgaria: Politics, Economics and Society ( London-New York, 1988); Rothschild Joseph, The Communist Party of Bulgaria: Origins and Development 1883-1936 ( New York, 1959).