General Information. Area: 48.379 square miles (127,686 square kilometers). Population: 15.5 million. Percentage of urban dwellers: 66 percent. Rural population: 34 percent. GNP: 112,036 billion Czechoslovak crowns. Distribution of the work force: 64 percent in industry and trade, 14 percent in agriculture. Length of railway network: 13,130 kilometers of which 3,307 kilometers are electrified. Length of road network: 74,891 kilometers. Currency: Czechoslovak crowns. (Koruna) Ethnicity: 65 percent Czech, 30 percent Slovak, five percent Hungarian, scattered groups of Germans, Ruthenians and Gypsies. Communist party membership: 1,700,000 in 1988. Capital cities: Prague (Praha) for the Czech lands, and Bratislava for Slovakia.
Korbel Joseph, Twentieth Century Czechoslovakia: The Meanings of its History ( New York, 1977); Wolchick Sharon, Czechoslovakia: Politics, Economics and Society in the Transition to Post-Communist Rule ( London, 1991).
The American army reached the borders and marched into Czechoslovakia.|
However, according to Allied agreements, it withdrew and permitted the So-
viet army to occupy the country.
|1945||April. Klement Gottwald, head of the Czechoslovak Communist party and|
deputy prime minister, declared that the restored state would be based on the
equality of Czechs and Slovaks.
June. Eduard Benes, the president of Czechoslovakia, declared that the Ger-
man and Hungarian minorities were to be expelled from the country. He thus
initiated the first "ethnic cleansing" in Eastern Europe outside the Soviet Un-
ion and Nazi Germany.
|1946||February. The Hungarian government under duress agreed to the exchange|