power from the communists. In the following year he was elected president of the Czechoslovak republic. In 1990, he visited the United States, and he was the first East European leader since 1945, who addressed the joint meeting of the Congress of the United States. He received a tumultuous welcome. In 1991, he lost some of his popularity because of the difficulty of revitalizing Czechoslovakia's economy. As a consequence, Havel was not reelected president. His successor was Vaclav Klaus. Havel was unwilling to assume the presidency because, as he stated, he did not want to preside over the dissolution of Czechoslovakia into two independent states. After the separation took place on January 1, 1993, Havel stood for, and was elected president of, the Czech Republic.
Peche Jiri, "Czech-Slovak Conflict Threatens State Unity," Radio Free Europe Research Report 1.1 ( January 3, 1992), pp. 83-86; Skilling Gordon H., Czechoslovakia's Interrupted Revolution ( Princeton, NJ, 1976).
Hendrych, Jiri (1913- ). In 1934, the 21-year-old Hendrych joined the legal Communist party of Czechoslovakia. He was a member of the regional leadership at Kladno. He remained active in the underground Communist party during the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia and ended up in the Mauthausen concentration camp for the duration of the war. He survived and, in 1945, he was appointed as a member of the secretariat of the Central Committee of the party; and from 1946 he was a parliamentary deputy. In 1951, Hendrych was appointed secretary to the Central Committee. He was adopted by the Politburo as a candidate (nonvoting) member in 1958, and in 1962 he was made a full member of the Presidium (formerly the Politburo) of the party. Between 1965 and 1968, Hendrych was the chairman of the Commission on Ideology of the party's Central Committee. As such, he issued violent criticisms of the Writers' Union and was dismissed from his posts by Alexander Dubcek (see Dubcek, Alexander) during the spring of 1968. After the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Hendrych joined the hard-liners and issued scathing criticisms of the reformers. After the collapse of communism, Hendrych, now in his late seventies, disappeared from Czechoslovak politics.
James Robert R., The Czechoslovak Crisis, 1968 ( London, 1969; Ulc Otto, Politics in Czechoslovakia, ( San Francisco, CA., 1974); Wolchick Sharon, "Czechoslovakia," in Joseph Held , ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992).
Husak, Gustav (1913- ). Husak joined the Czechoslovak Communist party in 1933. Between 1938 and 1943, he worked underground, but he also served the party as a lawyer. In September 1943 he became vice chairman of the Slovak faction of the Communist party. In 1945, he was appointed a member of the party's Central Committee, and between 1945 and 1951, he was a member of its Politburo. In February