Academy of the Communist (bolshevik) party of the Soviet Union. After his return to Czechoslovakia, Jakes was appointed an official in the ministry of the interior. In 1966, he became deputy minister of the interior, serving in that position until 1968. Jakes supported the Warsaw Pact invasion of his country and was, therefore, rewarded by the appointment to chair the Central Auditing and Control Commission of the Communist party. He remained in that post until 1977. Then he was appointed a candidate (nonvoting) member of the Presidium of the Communist party. In 1985, he replaced the ailing Gustav Husak (see Husak, Gustav) as prime minister of the Czechoslovak republic. In 1989, he was ousted and disappeared from political life.
Kusin Vladimir V., From Dubcek to Charter 77. A Study of 'Normalization' in Czechoslovakia, 1968-1978 ( New York, 1978); Rothschild Joseph, Return to Diversity. A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II ( Oxford, 1992).
Kosice Program. Based on the discussions between president Eduard Benes and Joseph Stalin in 1943, the Kosice program was signed in April 1945 at the city of the same name in the presence of Soviet and Czechoslovak party and state officials. The program described the method of cooperation among political parties in post-World War IICzechoslovakia, their system of work in the yet-to-be elected parliament, and the distribution of cabinet posts among the future coalition parties. This agreement went against Czechoslovakia's democratic traditions by prearranging the distribution of political power without the consent of the voters. It foreshadowed the communist dictatorship in coming years.
The agreement seemingly simplified Czechoslovakia's political system. Parties that either collaborated with the Nazis or even continued working during the German occupation of the country, were forbidden to revive their organizations. All coalition parties were to become members of the National Front of Urban and Rural Workers. No provision was made for oppositional parties. Accordingly, seven parties were to operate in postwar Czechoslovakia. These were the Communist party of Czechoslovakia, a separate Communist party for Slovakia, the Democratic party (in Slovakia only), the Slovak Labor party (only in Slovakia), the People's Socialist party (only in Bohemia, Moravia and Silezia), the Populist (or Christian Democratic) party (only in the Czech lands), and the Social Democratic party of Czechoslovakia. After the elections of 1946, the Slovak Labor party merged with the Social Democrats; however, at the same time, a new Slovak Liberal party was formed, and the number of parties remained the same.
The Czechoslovak Communist party and its Slovakian counterpart benefited from the agreement greatly. They were given control of key ministries, including the ministries of the interior, justice, and agriculture. The party immediately undertook the sponsorship of popular measures, including the efforts to rebuild the shattered economy and land reform, including the redistribution of the lands recovered from the expelled ethnic Germans. The program also included an economic plan. It decreed