1946. Between 1962 and 1968, she was a candidate (nonvoting) member of the Central Committee of the party and a parliamentary deputy in 1964. Between April and September 1968, she was vice chairman of the Czechoslovak parliament. She was appointed a member of the Commission on Rehabilitation of the party's Central Committee and co-opted to membership in the Central Committee itself in August 1968. In 1969, she delivered a speech at the session of the Central Committee condemning the invasion of Czechoslovakia the previous year. For this, she was expelled from the Central Committee and from all other jobs she had held in the party and government.
Rothschild Joseph, Return to Diversity. A Political History of Central Central Europe Since World War II ( Oxford, 1992).
Mlynar, Zdenek (1930- ). Mlynar, the son of a craftsmen, joined the Czechoslovak Communist party in 1950. He rose rapidly, and he was soon sent to Moscow to study at Lomonosov University. After his return to Czechoslovakia in 1955, he worked in the office of the prosecutor general until 1956. He was then appointed secretary to the Institute of State and Law. In 1962, he became chairman of the department of political leadership and society in the Institute. Between 1964 and 1968, he was secretary to the Legal Commission of the party's Central Committee. During 1968 and 1969, Mlynar was a member of the Czechoslovak Communist party's Presidium. In 1969, he resigned from all his offices.
He worked during the 1970s and 1980s in the National Museum in Prague. In the 1970s, Mlynar was a member of a loose group of dissident intellectuals demanding the democratization of society. He was arrested and jailed several times by the authorities. He wrote for the underground press.
In early 1975, Mlynar had written a memorandum about the motivations of the reformers in 1968. It included a thoughtful criticism of Alexander Dubcek (see Dubcek, Alexander) and his leadership. This memorandum was circulated in type script within Czechoslovakia and then published abroad. The memorandum provided the first critical analysis by a scholar of the reform movement of the 1960s. His conclusion was that, given the international context, the reforms were doomed to failure because of the inexperience of the Dubcek-leadership and the consequent mistakes that they committed.
Skilling Gordon H., Czechoslovakia's Interrupted Revolution ( Princeton, NJ., 1976).
National Committees. These committees were established in 1948 after the conquest of power by the Communist party by a special decree of the government. They were later approved by parliament. The committees which were established in every village, town, and city, were responsible for ensuring the control of the population by the Communist party cadres. Their power was considerable; they could send any re-