life imprisonment in 1952. In 1955, he was released from prison, but he had to wait until 1963 to be rehabilitated.
In 1966, Smrkovsky once again became active in party politics. He was appointed as a member of the Central Committee and was also named minister of forestry and water conservation. He entered the Politburo in 1968 during the premiership of Alexander Dubcek (see Dubcek, Alexander). By then, he was a supporter of reforms, and he became chairman of the National Assembly. Smrkovsky strongly opposed the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. As a consequence, he was expelled from the Communist party in 1970 and died as an outcast four years later.
Kusin Vladimir V., From Dubcek to Charter 77: A Study of 'Normalization 'in Czechoslovakia, 1968-1978 ( New York, 1978).
Svitak, Ivan (1926-). Svitak, a party member since 1945, became a Marxist philosopher at Charles University in Prague. During the purges, he was expelled from the party, but he retained his academic position.
He became a spokesman for reforms in 1968. He deplored the fact that the Czechoslovak Communist party had essentially remained a totalitarian organization. In a speech, entitled "With Head against the Wall," a reference to the practice of the secret police in treating political prisoners, Svitak declared totalitarian dictatorship enemy number one of the Czechoslovak people, and he called for its abolition in favor of an open society. He also declared that the people did not want democratization, but democracy. The aim, Svitak said, was to have free elections with true competition for the votes of the people. He proposed the creation of at least two new parties, one based on Christian and the other on socialist ideas, to provide alternatives to the communists' program. He rejected the existing "shadow parties" that the communists used to camouflage their real monopoly of power. Svitak especially condemned the disappearance of the Social Democratic party as a healthy alternative to the communists. He declared that without opposition, there is no democracy. In a later article, he proclaimed that the communists could never win a free election unless they became a normal, democratic organization. After the Warsaw Pact invasion, Svitak was harassed and he eventually left Czechoslovakia.
Oxley Andrew, Alex Pravda, and Andrew Ritchie, Czechoslovakia: The Party and the People ( London, 1973); Remington Robert, ed., Winter in Prague ( Cambridge, MA, 1972); Skilling Gordon H., Czechoslovakia's Interrupted Revolution ( Princeton, NJ, 1976); Svitak Ivan, The Czechoslovak Experiment, 1968-1969 ( New York, 1971).
Svoboda, Ludvik (1895-1989). Svoboda served in the Habsburg army, then, after the establishment of Czechoslovakia, in the Czechoslovak armed forces. He became a communist during the 1930s. During World War II and the German occupation of the Czech lands, Svoboda went to the Soviet Union. When Germany attacked the