article, but individuals were sometimes supportive of its demands.
In the final count, although the timing of the article (June) was perhaps debatable, it did achieve its purpose. It alerted the people of the dangers of opposition to democratization. In fact, "Two Thousand Words" did not represent the concerted action of a mass of people to change the system; it was not a call for a counterrevolution as its conservative critics maintained. It nevertheless stirred up public opinion in support of reform. It also provided an opportunity for hard-line conservatives to attack the reformist leadership.
Oxley Andrew, Alex Pravda, and Andrew Ritchie, eds. Czechoslovakia: The Party and the People ( London, 1973); Skilling Gordon H., Czechoslovakia's Interrupted Revolution ( Princeton, NJ, 1976).
Zapotocky, Antonio (1894-1957). Zapotocky, a member of the Czechoslovak Social Democratic party, headed its regional organization in Brno between 1907 and 1911. He changed over to the communists and was elected general secretary of the Communist party between 1922 and 1925. In 1925, he was elected parliamentary deputy on the Communist party's ticket and was also appointed to membership in the party's Politburo. Between 1929 and 1939, Zapotocky was secretary to the Red Trade Union Movement. When Germany occupied the Czech lands, Zapotocky was arrested and thrown in the Orienburg concentration camp where he remained until 1945. In 1945, he became the chairman of the Revolutionary Trade Union Movement. In 1948, he was appointed deputy prime minister of the new People's Democracy. He became prime minister and served in that post until 1953. Finally, he was named president of the Czechoslovak republic and died in office in 1957.
Ulc Otto, Politics in Czechoslovakia ( New York, 1967).