ing and subversion. When Honecker's regime had collapsed, a great deal of secret information came to light about all these activities.
Brandt Willy, A Peace Policy for Europe ( New York, 1969); Epstein Klaus, Germany after Adenauer ( New York, 1964); Gorgey Laszlo, Bonns' Eastern Policy, 1964-1971 ( Hamden, CT, 1973). Honecker Erich, From My Life ( Oxford, 1981); Kaiser Karl, German Foreign Policy in Transition: Bonn Between East and West ( New York, 1968). Larrabee F. Stephen, ed. The Two German States and European Security ( New York, 1989); Lipman Heinz, Honecker and the New Politics of Europe ( London, 1973).
Free German Youth Organization. The German independent youth movement, which emerged in 1896 in Steglitz, a suburb of Berlin, developed from a hiking club of high school students. The clubs multiplied in numbers until, by 1913, they had more than 100,000 members. This was no longer a hiking association but a movement Its chapters were, by then, spread all over the Second German empire, and their activities were varied. However, all the clubs agreed that participation in politics was not their aim.
They tried to establish a new culture, a "culture of youth," different from that of adult Germans. They had a general meeting at the Hohe Meissner in 1913 that was a memorable occasion in which they attempted to establish a unified movement. By then, each chapter went its own way, and they had not been able to act in common in the "interest of young people."
After World War I, the youth movement continued to split into several factions. One of these called itself Free German Youth. This organization was made up by veterans of the war who tried desperately to recapture their idyllic life of hiking and community action before 1914. The organization lived on until 1933. When Adolf Hitler came into power, he dissolved all independent youth organizations and had their property transferred to the Hitler Youth organization.
It was the name of Free German Youth that appealed to the East German communists in 1945. Its original groups tried to establish relations with the social democrats, but they were unsuccessful. Now the Free German Youth organization in East Germany was an equivalent of the KOMSOMOL, the youth organization of the Soviet Communist party. But the free spirit, the rejection of the direction provided by adults, and the effort to create a culture of young people, were and remained alien to this communist organization.
On March 7, 1946, when the communist youth organization was established, a great many young people living in the Soviet zone of occupation joined the organization. The organization received ample support from both the Soviet authorities and the Socialist Unity party. It supposed to be a nonparty, nonsectarian organization based on democratic ideals. The institution received ample support from both the Soviet authorities and the Socialist Unity party. But its goals became quite clear when its new leaders declared that they aimed to work in the spirit of Marxism-Leninism.