him as he was protecting the Bulgarian secret service generals and other communists who had served the interest of the Soviet Union in its East European colonies. When Gorbachev was replaced by Boris Yeltsin, the new Russian government expressed its willingness to return Honecker to Germany to stand trial for ordering the shooting of refugees. Honecker sought and received asylum in the embassy of Chile in Moscow. In 1992, he decided to return to Germany and face the accusations. However, because he is suffering from terminal cancer, his trial was abruptly stopped and his case was dismissed.
Honecker Eric, From My Life ( Oxford, 1981); Lipman Heinz, Honecker and the New Politics of Europe ( London, 1973); Wallace Ian, The GDR Under Honecker, 1971-1981 (Dundee, England, 1981); Woods Roger, Opposition in the GDR Under Honecker ( London, 1986).
Integration of East Germany into the Soviet Bloc. In 1954, the Soviet Union announced that it recognized East Germany as a sovereign, independent state in control of its internal and external affairs. The Soviet High Commissioner's task henceforth would simply be his concern with security and with liaison with the Western Allies on questions relevant to Germany as a whole. Soviet occupation forces would remain in East Germany under the four-power agreements of Teheran, Yalta, and Potsdam. Consequently, in July 1954, a Soviet ambassador, Georgy M. Pushkin, was appointed to East Berlin. In August of the same year, the Soviet government annulled all decrees and ordinances issued by the occupational authorities between 1945 and 1953.
On April 8, 1954, the three Western High Commissioners issued a declaration, according to which the Soviet move did not change the situation, and that the socalled German Democratic Republic was simply a Soviet puppet state that would not be recognized by the international community. Britain, France, and the United States further stated that they would continue to hold the Soviet Union responsible for internal and external affairs conducted by the so-called East German government, and that they would also continue to regard the West German government as the sole legitimate representative of the German nation.
Moscow then issued invitations to twenty-three European nations and the United States to attend a conference in Moscow on "safeguarding peace and collective security in Europe." However, only the Soviet Bloc countries accepted the invitation, and sent their representatives to Moscow. At the express wish of the Soviet leaders, the meeting issued a declaration, stating that the emergence of a West German army and its inclusion in NATO represented a threat to the peace of Europe and to the eight countries that had participated in the Moscow meeting.
The participants of the conference subsequently held another meeting in the Polish capital, Warsaw, on May 11-13, 1955, where they signed a twenty-year treaty of friendship and cooperation with each other and the Soviet Union and created a unified military command, led by Soviet generals. Only East Germany was left out of this