the Soviet zone of occupation. Police stations were organized and created throughout the Soviet zone, manned mostly by former prisoners of war in the Soviet Union. There were also some communist cadres who were delegated by their party for police work as well as noncommunist members of the anti-Nazi resistance.
A year later, the name of the institution was changed to that of People's Police (Volkspolicei, or VoPo). The People's Police was certainly a creation and organ of the new system established by the Soviet Union in Germany. After the creation of the East German state, it already had a ready-made police force for the enforcement of its policies. The People's Police was controlled by the East German ministry of the interior, an institution controlled by communist party members, and a subordinate of the Soviet occupational authorities. It was also a quasi-military force, and it was charged with maintaining peace and order in East Germany. In time, the People's Police became the kernel of a newly organized East German army.
Steele Jonathan, Inside East Germany: The State That Came in from the Cold ( New York, 1977).
Pieck, Wilhelm (1876-1960). Pieck was born into a poor craftsman's family and learned carpentry. He joined the German Social Democratic party at the age of nineteen in 1895. During World War I, he joined the Spartacusbund ( League of Spartacus), a radical leftist organization. In 1918, he left the moderate German social Democratic party and threw in his lot with the newly organized German Communist party of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Immediately, he was elected a member of the new party's Central Committee. Before the end of the war he deserted the German imperial army and took refuge in Holland.
Between 1921 and 1928, he was elected a deputy to the Prussian Landtag, or regional assembly, on the communist ticket. He was reelected twice, the last time in 1933. He was also a deputy of the all-German parliament, the Reichstag, between 1928 and 1933. Pieck became a member of the central commission of the COMINTERN in 1928. After the appointment of Adolf Hitler as German chancellor, Pieck sought asylum at first in France, and then he found his way to the Soviet Union. In 1945, he returned to Germany with the Soviet army and immediately became chairman of the reorganized German Communist party. Between 1946 and 1954, he shared the chairmanship of the Socialist Unity party (uniting the formerly Communist and Social Democratic parties) with Otto Grotewohl (see Grotewohl, Otto). Between 1949 and 1960, he was the president of East Germany. He died in 1960.
Grote Manfred, "The Socialist Unity party of Germany," in Stephen Fischer-Galati, ed. The Communist Parties of Eastern Europe ( New York, 1979).
Planning in East Germany. Central planning, one of the major elements of Soviet- style economic development, was intended to provide an underpinning to the alleg-