collectives were worked mostly by older men whose physical capacity was limited. The young workers had left for West Germany or for work in the cities.
Croan Melvin, "Germany and Eastern Europe," in Joseph Held, ed. The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century ( New York, 1992); Hanke Irma, "Rural Life under Socialism as Seen from Within: Eckart's 'So sehe Ich die Sache,' Protokolle aus der DDR" GDRMonitor 15 ( 1986), pp. 17-36; Leptin Gert, and Melzer Manfred, Economic Reform in East German Industry ( Oxford, 1978).
Potsdam Agreement (June 5, 1945). A joint statement was issued by the four victorious Allies in January 1945, concerning the zones of occupation of defeated Germany:
Germany within her frontiers of December 31, 1937, will, for the purposes of occupation, be divided into four zones, one to be allotted to each power as follows; 1. an eastern zone to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; a north-western zone to the UnitedKingdom; a south-western zone to the United States of America; and a western zone to France. 2. The area of Greater Berlin will be occupied by the forces of each of the four powers. An inter-Allied governing authority (in Russian, Kommandatura) consisting off our commandants, appointed by their respective commanders-in-chief, will be established to direct jointly, its administration . . . The Allied armies are in occupation of the whole of Germany, and the German people have begun to atone for the terrible crimes committed under the leadership of those whom, in the hour of their success, they openly approved and blindly obeyed. Agreement has been reached at this conference on the political and economic principles of a coordinated Allied policy toward defeated Germany during the period of Allied control. The purpose of this agreement is to carry out the Crimean declaration on Germany (Yalta). German militarism and Nazism will be extirpated and the Allies will take, in agreement together, now and in the future, the other measures necessary to assure that Germany will never again threaten her neighbors, or the peace of the world. It is not the intention of the Allies to destroy or to enslave the German people. It is their intention that the German people be given the opportunity for the eventual reconstruction of their life on a democratic and peaceful basis. If their own efforts are steadily directed to this end, it will be possible for them, in due course, to take their place among the free and peaceful people of the world. . .
Keesing Research Report. Germany and Eastern Europe Since 1945: From the Potsdam Agreement to Chancellor Brandt's Ostpolitik ( New York, 1973); Malzahn Manfred, Germany, 1945-1949: A Sourcebook ( London, 1991); Nettle Jonathan P, The Eastern Zone and Soviet Policy in Germany ( London, 1951); Stahl Walter, The Politics of Postwar Germany ( New York, 1963).
Religious Policies in East Germany. Over 15 million East Germans belonged to a